Document Type: Short Communication
1Department of Medical Entomology,
School of Health, Shiraz University of
Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran & PhD
Student in Biotechnology Research
Center, MVRG, Pasteur Institute of Iran.
Department of Medical Entomology,
School of Public Health, Tehran
University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,
Student Research Committee, Shiraz
University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz,
Background: Malaria is the most important vector-borne disease in many tropical countries all over the world. Because of the widespread use of pyrethroid insecticide treated mosquito nets in the world, the effects of excito-repellency (ER) phenomenon of pyrethroids against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi were studied.Methods: The ER phenomenon of three concentrations of two synthetic pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) as well as etofenprox was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi under laboratory conditions. Female 5-7 day unfed mosquitoes were exposed to animal bait in holder and the animal’s back and head were covered with impregnated bed net in -ER test chamber.Results: Deltamethrin was more effective compared to other insecticides in killing the mosquitoes. The mean of entry to exit trap showed significant differences in all concentrations of insecticides (P<0.05).Conclusion: This study showed that ER phenomenon of insecticides should be noticed in vector control programs. The ranked data indicated the relative potency of both pyrethroids and etofenprox. Deltamethrin repels the female mosquitoes more than other insecticides tested.
- WHO. World malaria report 2011. Available from: http://
- Alipour H, Ladonni H, Abaie MR, Moemenbellah-
- Fard MD, Fakoorziba MR. Laboratory efficacy
- tests of pyrethroid treated bednets on the malaria
- vectormosquito, Anopheles stephensi, in a baited excitorepellency
- chamber. Pak J Biol Sci. 2006;9(10):1877-83.
- Noosidum A, Prabaripai A, Chareonviriyaphap T,
- Chandrapatya A. Excito-repellency properties of
- essential oils from Melaleuca leucadendron L, Litsea
- cubeba (Lour) Persoon and Litsea salicifolia (Nees)
- on Aedes aegypti (L) mosquitoes. J Vector Ecol. 2008
- Rajaiefard AR, Nikbakhtzadeh MR, Alipour H. Malaria
- transmission and its vector ecology in the heartland of
- the Iranian Petrochemical Industry. J Exp Zool India.
- Lindsay SW, Adiamah JH, Miller JE, Armstrong JRM.
- Pyrethroid treated bednet effects on mosquitoes of the
- Anopheles gambiae complex in the Gambia. Med Vet
- Entomol. 1991;5(4):477-83. PubMed PMID: 1773125.
- Thomson MC, Adiamah JH, Connor SJ, Jawara M,
- Bennett S, DâAlessandro U, et al. Entomological
- evaluation of the Gambian national impregnated
- bed net programme Ann. Trop Med Parasitol.
- Lindsay SW, Adiamah JH, Armstrong JRM. The effect
- of permethrin-impregnated bed nets on house entry by
- mosquitoes in the Gambia. Bull Entomol Res. 1992;
- Mbogo CNM, Baya NM, Ofulla AVO, Githure JI,
- Snow RW. The impact of permethrin-impregnated
- bednets on malaria vectors of the Kenyan coast. Med
- Vet Entomol. 1996;10(3):251-9.
- Magbity EB, Marbiah NT, Maude G, Curtis CF,
- Bradley DJ, et al. Effects of community-wide use of
- lambdacyhalothrin -impregnated bednets on malaria
- vectors in rural Sierra Leone. Med Vet Entomol.
- Asidi A, NâGuessan R, Akogbeto M, Curtis C,
- Rowland M. Loss of household protection from
- use of insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroidresistant
- mosquitoes, Benin. Emerg Infect Dis.
- Jul;18(7):1101-6. Available from: http://dx.doi.
- Adams KJ, Chavasse DC, Mount DL, Carneiro
- IA, Curtis CF. Comparative insecticidal power
- of three pyrethroids on netting. Med Vet Entomol.
- ;16(1):106-8. PubMed PMID: 11963974.
- Sharma SK, Upadhyay AK, Haque MA, Padhan K,
- Tyagi PK. Village-scale evaluation of mosquito nets
- treated with a tablet formulation of deltamethrin against
- malaria vectors. Med Vet Entomol. 2005;19(3):286-92.
- PubMed PMID: 16134977.
- Vatandoost H, Mashayekhi M, Abaie MR, Aflatoonian
- MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Sharifi I. Monitoring of
- insecticides resistance in main malaria vectors in a
- malarious area of Kahnooj district, Kerman province,
- southeastern of Iran. J Vect Borne Dis. 2005;42(3):100-
- PubMed PMID: 16294808.
- Ilboudo-Sanogo E, Cuzin-Ouattara N, Diallo DA,
- Cousens SN, Esposito F, Habluetzel A, et al. Insecticidetreated
- materials, mosquito adaptation and mass effect:
- Entomological observations after five years of vector
- control in Burkina Faso. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg.
- Leia D, Claysson M, Holbiano S, Christopher J and
- Claudio TP. Excito-repellency effect of deltamethrin
- on triatomines under laboratory conditions. Rev Soc
- Bras Med Trop. 2000;33(3):247-52.
- Maia MF, Moore SJ. Plant-based insect repellents:
- a review of their efficacy, development and testing.
- Malar J. 2011;10(1):11.