Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

1 Hormozgan Environmental and Occupational Health Engineering Research Center- Hormozgan University of medical sciences Bandar Abbas Health Care center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences

2 Instructor of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

3 Hormozgan Environmental and Occupational Health Engineering Research Center- Hormozgan University of medical sciences Environmental Health Engineering Dept, faculty of health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences

4 Hormozgan Environmental and Occupational Health Engineering Research Center- Hormozgan University of medical sciences

Abstract

Background: Pre-chlorination of raw water containing natural organic matters may lead to forming harmful disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs), the measurement of which needs expensive advanced analytical instruments. This study was conducted to anticipate THMs formation potential in Bandar Abbas drinking water system using cheap and simple experiments and a mathematical model. Methods: In a 24 week sampling program, 96 samples were collected weekly from raw water (RW), clarification (CE), filtration (FE), and disinfection effluent (DE). After measuring the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), residual chlorine, contact time, temperature and pH of water, THMs concentration was calculated using a mathematical model. Results: The means of DOC concentration in RW, CE, FE and DE were 5.56, 4.21, 3.50, and 3.01 (mg/l), respectively. The mean of temperature values varied from 22.28 in RW to 21.25 in DE and the mean of pH variations was measured from 6.75 in DE to 8.37 in CE. Also, the mean of residual chlorine concentration was 0.0 to 1.72 in RW and DE, respectively. Conclusion: The means of calculated THMs were 37.92±4.82μg/l, 51.15±9.44μg/l, and 52.71±8.37μg/l for CE, FE, and DE respectively; this did not meet the related EPA standard (30- 40μg/l); therefore, further detailed studies should be conducted to resolve the consumers’ concerns in this regard.

Keywords

  1. Sharp EL, Jarvis P, Parsons SA , Jefferson B. Impact
  2. of fractional character on the coagulation of NOM.
  3. Colloids Surf A 2006; 286(1-3): 104-11.
  4. Fabris R, Chow CW, Drikas M, Eikebrokk B.
  5. Comparison of NOM character in selected Australian
  6. and Norwegian drinking waters. Water Res 2008;
  7. (15): 4188-96.
  8. Di Cristo C, Esposito G, Leopardi A. Modelling
  9. trihalomethanes formation in water supply systems.
  10. Environ Technol 2013; 34(1-4): 61-70.
  11. Mahvi AH, Alipour V, Rezaei L. Atmospheric
  12. moisture condensation to water recovery by home air
  13. conditioners. American Journal of Applied Sciences
  14. ; 10(8): 917-23.
  15. Hong HC, Liang Y, Han BP, Mazumder A, Wong
  16. MH. Modeling of trihalomethane (THM) formation
  17. via chlorination of the water from Dongjiang River
  18. (source water for Hong Kong’s drinking water). Sci
  19. Total Environ 2007; 385(1-3): 48-54.
  20. Richardson SD, Plewa MJ, Wagner ED, Schoeny
  21. R, Demarini DM. Occurrence, genotoxicity and
  22. carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection
  23. by-products in drinking water: A review and roadmap
  24. for research. Mutation Res 2007; 636(1-3): 178-242.
  25. Pals JA, Ang JK, Wagner ED, Plewa MJ. Biological
  26. mechanism fro the toxicity of haloacetic acid drinking
  27. water disinfection byproducts. Environ Sci Technol
  28. ; 45(13): 5791-7.
  29. Villanueva CM, Cantor KP, Cordier S, Jaakkola JJ,
  30. King WD, Lynch CF, et al. Disinfection by products
  31. and bladder cancer: a pooled analysis. Epidemiology
  32. ; 15(3): 357-67.
  33. Zazouli MA, Nasseri S, Mahvi AH, Mesdaghinia AR,
  34. Gholami M. Study of Natural Organic Matter Fractions
  35. in Water Sources of Tehran. Pak J Biol Sci 2007; 10(10):
  36. -22.
  37. Singh KP1, Rai P, Pandey P, Sinha S. Modeling and
  38. optimization of trihalomethanes formation potential
  39. of surface water (a drinking water source) using Box–
  40. Behnken design. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2012; 19(1):
  41. -27.
  42. Rizzo L, Selcuk H, Nikolaou A, Belgiorno V, Bekbolet
  43. M, Meric S. Formation of chlorinated organics in
  44. drinking water of Istanbul (Turkey) and Salerno (Italy).
  45. Glob NEST J 2005; 7(1): 95-105.
  46. Krasner SW, Croue JP, Buffle J, Perdue EM. Three
  47. Approaches for Characterizing NOM. JAWWA 1996;
  48. (6): 66-79.
  49. Kim HC, Yu MJ. Characterization of natural organic
  50. matter in conventional water treatment processes for
  51. selection of t reatment p rocesses focused on DBPs
  52. control. Water Res 2005; 39(19): 4779-89.
  53. Chowdhury S, Rodriguez MJ, Sadiq R. Disinfection
  54. by products in Canadian provinces: Associated cancer
  55. risks and medical expenses. J Hazard Mater 2011;
  56. (1-3): 574-84.
  57. Al-Omari A, Fayyad M, Qader AA. Modeling
  58. trihalomethane formation for Jabal Amman water
  59. supply in Jordan. Earth Environ Sci 2005; 9: 245-52.
  60. Chow A, Tanji K, Gao S. Production of dissolved
  61. organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane (THM)
  62. precursor from peat soils. Water Res 2003; 37(18):
  63. -85.
  64. Sadiq R, Rodrssiguez MJ. Disinfection byproducts
  65. (DBPs) in drinking water and predictive models for
  66. their occurrence: a review. Total Environ Sci 2004;
  67. : 21-46.
  68. Mazloomi S, Nabizadh R, Nasseri S, Naddafi K,
  69. Nazmara S, Mahvi AH. Efficiency of domestic reverse
  70. osmosis in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking
  71. water. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 2009; 6(4): 301-6.
  72. Speight VL, Singer PC. Association between residual
  73. chlorine loss and HAA reduction in distribution
  74. systems. J Am Water Works Assoc 2005; 97: 82-91.
  75. Uyak V, Toroz I, Meric S. Monitoring and modeling of
  76. trihalomethanes (THMs) for a water treatment plant in
  77. Istanbul. Desalination 2005; 176: 91-101.
  78. Westerhoff P, Debroux J, Amy GL, Gatel D, Mary V,
  79. Cavard J. Applying DBP models to full-scale plants.
  80. JAWWA 2000; 92(3): 89-102.
  81. Rodriguez MJ, Serodes J, Morin M. Estimation of water
  82. utility compliance withtrihalomethane regulations
  83. using a modelling approach. Aqua Colchester 2000;
  84. (2): 57-73.
  85. Sung W, Matthews BR, O’Day K, Horrigan K.
  86. Modeling DBP formation. JAWWA 2000; 92(5): 53-63.
  87. Chang EE, Lin PY, Chiang PC. Effects of bromide on the formation of THMs and HAAs. Chemosphere
  88. ; 43: 1029-34.
  89. Sohn J, Amy G, Cho J, Leed Y, Yoon Y. Disinfectant
  90. decay and disinfection by-products formation model
  91. development: chlorination and ozonation by-products.
  92. Water Res 2004; 38: 2461-78.
  93. Sun F, Chen J, Tong Q, Zeng S. Development and
  94. identification of an integrated waterworks model for
  95. trihalomethanes simulation. Sci Total Environ 2009;
  96. : 2077-86.
  97. Ye B, Wang W, Yang L, Wei J, E X. Factors influencing
  98. disinfection by-products formation in drinking water of
  99. six cities in China. J Hazard Mater 2009; 171: 147-52.
  100. Abdullah MP, Yew CH, Ramli MSB. Formation,
  101. modeling and validation of trihalomethanes (THM) in
  102. Malaysian drinking water: a case study in the districts
  103. of Tampin, Negeri Sembilan and Sabak Bernam,
  104. Selangor, Malaysia. Water Res 2003; 37(19): 4637-44.
  105. Chowdhury S, Champagne P. An investigation on
  106. parameters for modeling THMs formation. Glob NEST
  107. J 2008; 10(1): 80-91.
  108. Wang H, Liu DM, Zhao Z, Cui F, Zhu Q, Liu TM. factors
  109. influencing the formation of chlorination brominated
  110. trihalomethanes in drinking water. J Zhejiang Univ-Sci
  111. A (Appl Phys & Eng) 2010; 11(2): 143-50.
  112. Zazouli MA, Nasseri S, Mahvi AH, Mesdaghinia AR.
  113. Organic carbon concentrations and potential formation
  114. of disinfectant by-products in Tehran drinking water
  115. distribution networks. Scientific Journal of School of
  116. Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research
  117. ; 7(3): 51-9.
  118. Jung CW, Son HJ. The relationship between disinfection
  119. by-products formation and characteristics of natural
  120. organic matter in raw water. Korean J Chem Eng 2008;
  121. (4): 714-20.
  122. Pourmoghaddas H, Stevans AA. Relationship between
  123. trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids with total organic
  124. halogen during chlorination. Water Res 1995; 29:
  125. -62.
  126. Brinkman B, Hozalski RM. Temporal Variation of
  127. NOM and Effects on Membrane Treatment. JAWWA
  128. ; 103(2): 98-105.
  129. EPA. JOINT POSITION STATEMENT Trihalomethanes
  130. in Drinking Water November 2011. Office of Water.
  131. Environmental Protection Agency 2011.