Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

1 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran;

2 Department of Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;

3 Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;

4 Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are serious public health problems. It is suggested that high calcium diet can improve lipid profile, blood pressure and insulin resistance.Methods: In this clinical trial, 75 healthy overweight or obese premenopausal women were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary regimens for 8 weeks: 1) a control diet 2) a calcium-supplemented diet containing 800mg/d calcium carbonate 3) a high milk diet containing three servings of low fat milk (all of them providing a 500kcal/day deficit). At baseline and after 8 weeks, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, serum triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured.Results: After 8 weeks, WC, FBS and HDL-C decreased in all groups (P<0.001), but there were no significant reduction in TG and blood pressure. Reduction of WC in the milk group was significantly higher than the controls (P=0.028). Also, reduction of HDL-C in the calcium and milk groups was less than the controls (P=0.023 and P=0.019, respectively). Changes in FBS, TG and blood pressure were not significantly different among the 3 groups.Conclusion: We found that increasing milk consumption led to more WC reduction. Milk or calcium intake caused less adverse effect on HDL-C, but has no effect on the blood pressure, FBS and TG. So increase in milk or calcium intake can reduce WC among the metabolic syndrome complications.

Keywords

  1. Obesity and overweight. Available on line at: http://
  2. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en
  3. (accessed on 15 June 2011)
  4. Aranceta J, Moreno B, Moya M, and Anadan A.
  5. Prevention of overweight and obesity from a public
  6. health perspective. Nutr Rev 2009; 67: 83S-8S.
  7. Park J, Hilmers DC, Mendoza JA, Stuff JE, Liu Y,
  8. Nicklas TA. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome
  9. and Obesity in Adolescents Aged 12 to 19 Years:
  10. Comparison between the United States and Korea. J
  11. Korean Med Sci 2010; 25: 75-82.
  12. Alkerwi A, Donneau A, Sauvageot N, Lair ML,
  13. Scheen A, Albert A, et al. Prevalence of the metabolic
  14. syndrome in Luxembourg according to the Joint Interim
  15. Statement definition estimated from the ORISCAVLUX
  16. study. BMC Public Health 2011; 11(1): 4.
  17. Jover A, Corbella E, Munoz A, Millan J, Pinto X ,
  18. Mangas A, et al. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome
  19. and its Components in Patients With Acute Coronary
  20. Syndrome. Rev Esp Cardiol 2011; 64(7): 579-86.
  21. doi:10.1016/j.rec.2011.03.009.
  22. Parikh SJ, Yanovski JA, Calcium intake and adiposity.
  23. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 281-7.
  24. Schrager S. Dietary Calcium Intake and Obesity. J Am
  25. Board Fam Pract 2005; 18: 205-10.
  26. Zemel MB. The Role of Dairy Foods in Weight
  27. Management. J Am College Nutr 2005; 24(6): 537S-46S.
  28. Jacqmain M, Doucet E, Despres JP, Bouchard C,
  29. Tremblay A. Calcium intake, body composition, and
  30. lipoprotein-lipid concentrations in adults. Am J Clin
  31. Nutr 2003; 77: 1448-52.
  32. Wang L, JoAnn E. Manson JE, Buring JE, Lee I, Sesso
  33. HD. Dietary Intake of Dairy Products, Calcium, and
  34. Vitamin D and the Risk of Hypertension in Middle-
  35. Aged and Older Women. Hypertension 2008; 51:
  36. -9.
  37. Pereira MA, Jacobs DR, Van Horn L, Slattery ML,
  38. Kartashov AI and LudwigDS. Dairy Consumption,
  39. Obesity, and the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in
  40. Young Adults .The CARDIA Study. JAMA 2002;
  41. : 2081-2089.
  42. Choi HK, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, Frank
  43. B. Dairy Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
  44. Mellitus in Men. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 997-1003.
  45. Drouillet P, Balkau B, Charles, Vol S, Bedouet M,
  46. Ducimetie`re P, The DESIR Study Group. Calcium
  47. consumption and insulin resistance syndrome
  48. parameters. Data from the Epidemiological Study on
  49. the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR). Nutr Metab
  50. Cardio Diseases 2007; 17: 486-92.
  51. Liu S, Choi HK, Ford E, Song Y, Klevak A, Buring
  52. JE, et al. A Prospective Study of Dairy Intake and the
  53. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women. Diabetes Care 29:1579-84, 2006.
  54. Faghih S, Abadi A, Hedayati M, Kimiagar M.
  55. Comparison of the effects of cows’ milk, fortified soy
  56. milk, and calcium supplement on weight and fat loss
  57. in premenopausal overweight and obese women. Nutr
  58. Metab Cardio Diseases 2011; 21: 499-503.
  59. Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, Dirienzo D, Zemel PC.
  60. Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. FASEB J
  61. ; 14: 1132-8.
  62. Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Esmailzadeh A, Azizi F.
  63. Dairy consumption is inversely associated with the
  64. prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Tehranian
  65. adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82(3): 523-30.
  66. Kim J. Dairy food consumption is inversely associated
  67. with the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Korean
  68. adults. J Hum Nutr Diet 2013; 26( Suppl 1):171-9.
  69. Shahar DR, Abel R, Elhayany A, Vardi H, Fraser D.
  70. Does dairy calcium intake enhance weight loss among
  71. overweight patients?. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 485-9.
  72. Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, Morris K,
  73. Campbell P. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight
  74. and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults.
  75. Obes Res 2004; 12: 582-90.
  76. Zemel MB, Richards J, Milstead A, Gebhardt L, Silva
  77. E. Dairy augmentation of total and central fat loss in
  78. obese subjects. Int J Obes 2005; 29: 391-7.
  79. Hammond KA, Clinical: inflammation, physical and
  80. functional assessment In: Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S.
  81. Krause′s food and nutrition care process, 13th edition,
  82. USA, Saunders, 2012, P: 169.
  83. Major GC, Alarie F, Dore J, phouttama S, Trembly A.
  84. Supplementation with calcium + vitamin D enhances
  85. the beneficial effect o weight loss on plasma lipid and
  86. lipoprotein concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85: 54-9.
  87. Reid IR, Horne A, Mason B, Ames R, Bava U, Gamble
  88. GD. Effects of Calcium Supplementation on Body
  89. Weight and Blood Pressure in Normal Older Women:
  90. A Randomized Controlled Trial. J of Clin Endocrinol
  91. Metab 2005; 90(7): 3824-29.
  92. Daly RM, Nowson CA. Long term effect of calciumvitamin
  93. D3 fortified milk on blood pressure and serum
  94. lipid concentrations in healthy older men. Eur J Clin
  95. Nutr 2009; 63(8): 993-1000.
  96. Xydakis AM, Case CC, Jones PH, Hoogeveen RC,
  97. Liu MY, Smith B, et al. Adiponectine inflammation
  98. and expression of the metabolic syndrome in obese
  99. individuals: The impact of rapid weight loss through
  100. caloric restriction. J Clin Endocrin Metab 2004; 89(6):
  101. -703.
  102. Bostick RM, Fosdick L, Grandits GA, Grambsch P,
  103. Gross M, Louis TA. Effect of calcium supplementation
  104. on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Arch Farm
  105. Med 2000; 9: 31-9.
  106. Wang L, Manson JE, Buring JE, LeeIM, Sesso HD.
  107. Dietary Intake of Dairy Products, Calcium, and Vitamin
  108. D and the Risk of Hypertension in Middle-Aged and
  109. Older Women. Hypertension 2008; 51: 1073-9.
  110. Martini LA, Wood RJ. Milk intake and the risk of type
  111. diabetes mellitus, hypertension and prostate cancer.
  112. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab 2009; 53 (5): 688-94.
  113. Alonso A, Beunza JJ, Delgado-Rodriguez M,
  114. Martinez JA, Martinez-Gonzalez MA. Low-fat dairy
  115. consumption and reduced risk of hypertension: the
  116. Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort.
  117. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82(5): 972-9.
  118. Jauhiainen T, Korpela R. Milk peptides and blood
  119. pressure. J Nutr 2007; 137: 825s-9s.
  120. Thompson WG, Holdman NR, Janzow DJ, Stezak JM,
  121. Morris KL, Zemel MB. Effect of energy-reduced diets
  122. high in dairy products and fiber on weight loss in obese
  123. adults. Obes Reserch 2005; 13(8): 1344-53.
  124. Pittas AG, Harris SS, Stark PC, Hughes BD. The effects
  125. of calcium and vitaminD supplementation on blood
  126. glucose and markers of inflammation in nondiabetic
  127. adults. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 980-86.