Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Background: Among Alkanes, N-Alkanes with medium chain have been identified as the most important contaminants of the soil. N-hexadecane (C16H34) with low solubility in water also belongs to this group and has been used by many researchers as a model contaminant. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the external source of carbon (glucose) as co-substrate on removal of hexadecane from the soil.Methods: In this study, a Slurry Sequencing Batch Reactor (SSBR) was used as a pilot by a bacterial consortium, including bacterium Acinetobacter radioresistens, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in order to remove different concentrations of hexadecane (1,4,7, and 10 percent).Sampling was performed four times during the sedimentation step. Then, the samples were analyzed by GC-FID and the results were analyzed statistically.Results: The results showed that hexadecane removal (%) by the microbial consortium was higher in lower initial concentrations in such a way that the biological removal of hexadecane was respectively 45.95%, 38.55%, 34.39%, and 32.40% in the concentrations of 1%, 4%, 7%, and 10% on the third day. Moreover, adding the external carbon source (glucose) on the first day caused a 16% increase in hexadecane removal, which is 1.4 times more than the amount of hexadecane removal in the conditions without co-metabolism.Conclusion: The results showed that SSBR could be used as an exit-situation effective method for hexadecane removal in low concentrations through considering the effective factors in its function, such as dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature. Also, adding the secondary carbon source could be effective in hexadecane removal from the soil. Yet, this effect might vary on different days.

Keywords

  1. Volke-Sepúlveda TL, Gutierrez-Rojas M, Favela-Torres
  2. E. Biodegradation of hexadecane in liquid and solidstate
  3. fermentations by Aspergillus niger. Bioresour
  4. Technol 2003; 87(1): 81-6.
  5. Gallegos Martïnez M, Gomez Santos A, Gonzalez
  6. Cruz L, Montes de Oca Garcia MA, Yanez Trujillo L,
  7. Zermeno Eguia Lis JA, et al. Diagnostic and resulting
  8. approaches to restore petroleum-contaminated soil
  9. in a Mexican tropical swamp. Water Science and
  10. Technology 2000; 42(5-6): 377-84. PubMed PMID: 384.
  11. Atlas RM. Microbial degradation of petroleum
  12. hydrocarbons: an environmental perspective. Microbiol
  13. Rev 1981; 45(1): 180-209. PubMed PMID: 239.
  14. Bakhshi Nejad B. Isolation, characterization and
  15. molecular identification of the bacteria inhabiting
  16. the petroleum-contaminated soil [MSc. thesis in
  17. genetics]: Tarbiat Modares University, Faculty of
  18. Basic Sciences; 2008.
  19. Vidali M. Bioremediation. An overview. Pure and
  20. Applied Chemistry 2001; 73(7): 1163-72.
  21. Pangman JK. Guide to environmental issues: DIANE
  22. Publishing; 1995.
  23. Anderson R, Rasor E, Van Ryn F. Particle size
  24. separation via soil washing to obtain volume reduction.
  25. J Hazard Mater 1999; 66(1): 89-98.
  26. AKAGI MMMTH. Modeling of Hydrocyclone Circuit
  27. on Particle Separation during Soil Washing. Journal
  28. of Japan Society on Water Environment 2004; 27(8):
  29. -40.
  30. Shiratori T. Contaminated Soil Remediation. Journal
  31. of the Mining and Materials Processing Institute of
  32. Japan 2003; 119(8): 441-50.
  33. Samaei MR. Combined bioaugmentation and
  34. biostimulation to cleanup soil contaminated with
  35. hexadecane in slurry bioreactors: Tarbiat Modares
  36. University; 2013.
  37. Dehghani M , T aatizadeh S B, S amaei M R.
  38. Biodegradation of n-Hexadecane in Acinetobacter
  39. Radioresistens Liquid Culture. Health Scope 2013;
  40. (3): 162-7. 12 Hassanshahian M, Ahmadinejad M, Tebyanian H,
  41. Kariminik A. Isolation and characterization of alkane
  42. degrading bacteria from petroleum reservoir waste
  43. water in Iran (Kerman and Tehran provenances). Mar
  44. Pollut Bull 2013; 73(1): 300-5.
  45. Puskas K, Al-Awadhi N, Abdullah F, Literathy P.
  46. Remediation of oil-contaminated sandy soil in a slurry
  47. reactor. Environment International 1995; 21(4): 413-21.
  48. Cassidy DP, Efendiev S, White DM. A comparison of
  49. CSTR and SBR bioslurry reactor performance. Water
  50. Res 2000; 34(18): 4333-42. PubMed PMID: 147.
  51. Bhandari A, Dove DC, Novak JT. Soil washing and
  52. biotreatment of petroleum-contaminated soils. Journal
  53. of Environmental Engineering 1994; 120(5): 1151-69.
  54. Geerdink M, Kleijntjens R, Loosdrecht Mv, Luyben
  55. KCA. Microbial decontamination of polluted soil in a
  56. slurry process. Journal of Environmental Engineering
  57. ; 122(11): 975-82.
  58. Nano G, Borroni A, Rota R. Combined slurry and
  59. solid-phase bioremediation of diesel contaminated
  60. soils. J Hazard Mater 2003; 100(1-3): 79-94. PubMed
  61. PMID: 191.
  62. Cassidy DP, Hudak AJ. Microorganism selection
  63. and biosurfactant production in a continuously and
  64. periodically operated bioslurry reactor. J Hazard Mater
  65. ; 84(2-3): 253-64. PubMed PMID: 244.
  66. Khezri SM, Fatemi SH, Poshtegal MK, Hasanlou
  67. S. Effect of slurry sequencing batch reactor for
  68. bioremediation of TPH contaminated soil. Journal of
  69. Food, Agriculture & Environment 2010; 8: 3&4.
  70. Hasanlou S. Laboratory-scale bioremediation
  71. experiments on diesel and Polycyclic aromatic
  72. hydrocarbons contaminated soils. Global Journal of
  73. Researches In Engineering 2011; 11(5_B).
  74. Timmis KN, McGenity T, Van Der Meer J, De Lorenzo
  75. V. Handbook of hydrocarbon and lipid microbiology:
  76. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg; 2010.
  77. Samaei MR, Mortazavi SB, Bakhshi B, Jonidi Jafari
  78. A, editors. Isolation and Characterization of bacteria
  79. degrading n-Hexadecane from soil. 2012 International
  80. Conference on Biological and Life Science; 2012:
  81. IACSIT Press.
  82. Cappello S, Santisi S, Calogero R, Hassanshahian M,
  83. Yakimov M. Characterisation of oil-degrading bacteria
  84. isolated from bilge water. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
  85. ; 223(6): 3219-26.
  86. Jurelevicius D, Cotta SR, Peixoto R, Rosado AS,
  87. Seldin L. Distribution of alkane-degrading bacterial
  88. communities in soils from King George Island,
  89. Maritime Antarctic. European Journal of Soil Biology
  90. ; 51: 37-44.
  91. Quatrini P, Scaglione G, De Pasquale C, Riela S, Puglia
  92. A. Isolation of Gram-positive n-alkane degraders from
  93. a hydrocarbon-contaminated Mediterranean shoreline.
  94. J Appl Microbiol 2008; 104(1): 251-9.
  95. Plangklang P, Reungsang A. Bioaugmentation of
  96. carbofuran residues in soil using Burkholderia cepacia
  97. PCL3 adsorbed on agricultural residues. International
  98. Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 2009; 63(4): 515-22.
  99. PubMed PMID: 56.
  100. EPA Method 3550c. Ultrasonic Extraction 2007; 17:
  101. -17.
  102. Shojaosadati SA. Industrial biotechnology. Tehran:
  103. Center of Scientific Publications; 2010.
  104. Samaei MR, Mortazavi SB, Bakhshi B, Jafari AJ.
  105. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteria Degrading
  106. n-Hexadecane from Soil. International Proceedings of
  107. Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering
  108. ; 40.
  109. Bernardez L. A rotating disk apparatus for assessing
  110. the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  111. transferring from a non-aqueous phase liquid to
  112. solutions of surfactant Brij 35. Bioprocess and
  113. Biosystems Engineering 2009; 32(3): 415-24. PubMed
  114. PMID: 218.
  115. Hassanshahian M, Ahmadinejad M, Tebyanian H,
  116. Kariminik A. Isolation and characterization of alkane
  117. degrading bacteria from petroleum reservoir waste
  118. water in Iran (Kerman and Tehran provenances).
  119. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2013.
  120. Atlas RM. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation—
  121. bioremediation of oil spills. Journal of Chemical
  122. Technology and Biotechnology 1991; 52(2): 149-56.
  123. Cunha CD, SGF L. GASOLINE BIODEGRADATION
  124. IN DIFFERENT SOIL MICROCOSMS. Brazilian
  125. Journal of Microbiology 2000; 31: 45-9.
  126. Watanabe k, Hamamura N. Molecular and physiological
  127. approaches to understanding the ecology os pollutant
  128. degradation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2003; 14(3): 289-95.
  129. PubMed PMID: 685.
  130. Rahman PK, Gakpe E. Production, characterisation and
  131. applications of biosurfactants-Review. 2008.
  132. Muthusamy K, Gopalakrishnan S, Ravi TK,
  133. Sivachidambaram P. Biosurfactants: properties,
  134. commercial production and application. Current
  135. Science 2008; 94(6): 736-47.
  136. Vasileva-Tonkova E, Galabova D, Stoimenova E,
  137. Lalchev Z. Characterization of bacterial isolates from
  138. industrial wastewater according to probable modes of
  139. hexadecane uptake. Microbiological Research 2008;
  140. (4): 481-6.
  141. Roy R, Greer CW. Hexadecane mineralization and
  142. denitrification in two diesel fuel-contaminated soils.
  143. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2000; 32(1): 17-23.
  144. PubMed PMID: 137.
  145. Dashti N, Al-Awadhi H, Khanafer M, Abdelghany
  146. S, Radwan S. Potential of hexadecane-utilizing
  147. soil-microorganisms for growth on hexadecanol,
  148. hexadecanal and hexadecanoic acid as sole sources of
  149. carbon and energy. Chemosphere 2008; 70(3): 475-9.
  150. PubMed PMID: 131.
  151. Gomes EB, Silva RF, Rosado AS, Pereira Jr N.
  152. Biotreatment of diesel waste by sequencing batch
  153. bioreactor operation mode (SBR). International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 2010; 64(5): 413-7.
  154. Venkata Mohan S, Prasanna D, Purushotham
  155. Reddy B, Sarma P. Ex situ bioremediation of pyrene
  156. contaminated soil in bio-slurry phase reactor operated
  157. in periodic discontinuous batch mode: Influence of
  158. bioaugmentation. International Biodeterioration &
  159. Biodegradation 2008; 62(2): 162-9.
  160. Li H, Zhang Y, Kravchenko I, Xu H, Zhang CG.
  161. Dynamic changes in microbial activity and community
  162. structure during biodegradation of petroleum
  163. compounds: a laboratory experiment. Journal of
  164. Environmental Sciences 2007; 19(8): 1003-13.
  165. Fierer N, Jackson RB. The diversity and biogeography
  166. of soil bacterial communities. Proc Nati Acad Sci U S
  167. A 2006; 103(3): 626-31.
  168. Lauber CL, Hamady M, Knight R, Fierer N.
  169. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of soil pH as a
  170. predictor of soil bacterial community structure at the
  171. continental scale. Appl Environ Microbiol 2009; 75(15):
  172. -20.
  173. Partovinia A, Naeimpoor F, Hejazi P. Carbon content
  174. reduction in a model reluctant clayey soil: Slurry phase
  175. n-hexadecane bioremediation. J Hazard Mater 2010;
  176. (1–3): 133-9.
  177. Ratkowsky D, Olley J, McMeekin T, Ball A.
  178. Relationship between temperature and growth rate of
  179. bacterial cultures. J Bacteriol 1982; 149(1): 1-5.
  180. Farrell J, Rose A. Temperature effects on
  181. microorganisms. Annu Rev Microbiol 1967; 21(1):
  182. -20.
  183. Juneson C, Ward OP, Singh A. Biodegradation of bis(2-
  184. ethylhexyl)phthalate in a soil slurry-sequencing batch
  185. reactor. Process Biochemistry 2001; 37(3): 305-13.
  186. PubMed PMID: 153.
  187. Giordano A, Stante L, Pirozzi F, Cesaro R, Bortone G.
  188. Sequencing batch reactor performance treating PAH
  189. contaminated lagoon sediments. J Hazard Mater 2005;
  190. (1–3): 159-66.