Document Type: Original Articles


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran;

2 MA student of Environmental Health Engineering, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran;

3 Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Background: High amount of heavy metals in sludge is one of the major obstacles to its use on farms. The present study aimed to investigate the possibility of leaching heavy metals from wastewater sludge by Fenton method and determine the optimum level of parameters, such as iron, hydrogen peroxide, time, and pH for Fenton reaction. Methods: The effects of various parameters, such as pH (2-9), hydrogen peroxide concentration (0.5-6 g/l), Fe concentration (0.5-4 g/l), and leaching time (5-60 min), were studied. Results: The results showed that the optimal condition for leaching of heavy metals occurred at pH of 2 3, hydrogen peroxide concentration of 3 g/l, iron concentration of 2 g/l, and leaching time of 15 min. Under these optimal conditions, 92% of Zn, 100% of Cd, 100% of Pb, and 80% of Cu were leached from the wastewater sludge. Conclusions: Fenton method can leach heavy metals from wastewater sludge through decomposition of organic materials at H2O2/Fe ratio of 1.5:2.


  1. Wu Q, Cui Y, Li Q, Sun J. Effective removal of
  2. heavy metals from industrial sludge with the aid of a
  3. biodegradable chelating ligand GLDA. J Hazard Mater
  4. ; 283: 748-54.
  5. Yan X, Zhang F, Zeng C, Zhang M, Devkota LP, Yao T.
  6. Relationship between Heavy Metal Concentrations in
  7. Soils and Grasses of Roadside Farmland in Nepal. Int
  8. J Environ Res Public Health 2012; 9: 3209-26.
  9. Peng G, Tian G, Liu J, Bao Q, Zang L. Removal of
  10. heavy metals from sewage sludge with a combination of
  11. bioleaching and electrokinetic remediation technology.
  12. Desalination 2011; 271: 100-4.
  13. Dewil R, Baeyens J, Appels L. Enhancing the use of
  14. waste activated sludge as bio-fuel through selectively
  15. reducing its heavy metal content. J Hazard Mater 2007;
  16. (3): 703-7.
  17. Malakootian M, Mansoorian HJ, Moosavi S,
  18. Daneshpazhoh M. Performance Evaluation of Fenton
  19. Process to Remove Chromium, COD and Turbidity
  20. from Electroplating Industry Wastewater. Journal of
  21. water and wastewater 2011; 2: 2-10. (persion)
  22. KAYNAK GE, FILIBELI A. Assessment of Fenton
  23. Process as a Minimization Technique for Biological
  24. Sludge: Effects on Anaerobic Sludge Bioprocessing.
  25. Journal of Residuals Science & Technology 2008; 5(3):
  26. -60.
  27. Erden G, Filibeli A. Improving anaerobic
  28. biodegradability of biological sludges by Fenton
  29. pre-treatment: Effects on single stage and two-stage
  30. anaerobic digestion. Desalination 2010; 251(1-3): 58-63.
  31. Zhu Y, Zeng G, Zhang P, Zhang C, Ren M, Zhang J, et
  32. al. Feasibility of bioleaching combined with Fenton-like
  33. reaction to remove heavy metals from sewage sludge.
  34. Bioresour Technol 2013; 142: 530-4.
  35. Fu F, Xie L, Tang B, Wang Q, Jiang S. Application of a
  36. novel strategy-Advanced Fenton-chemical precipitation
  37. to the treatment of strong stability chelated heavy metal
  38. containing wastewater. Chemical Engineering Journal
  39. ; 189-190: 283-7.
  40. Zeng X, Twardowska I, Wei S, Sun L, Wang J, Zhu
  41. J, et al. Removal of trace metals and improvement
  42. of dredged sediment dewaterability by bioleaching
  43. combined with Fenton-like reaction. J Hazard Mater
  44. ; 288: 51-9
  45. Dewil R, Baeyens J, Neyens E. Reducing the Heavy
  46. Metal Content of Sewage Sludge by Advanced Sludge
  47. Treatment Methods. Environmental Engineering
  48. Science 2006; 23(6): 994-9
  49. Bulletin A. Determination of cadmium, lead and copper
  50. in foodstuffs, waste water and sewage sludge by anodic
  51. stripping voltammetry after digestion.
  52. Chakinala AG, Gogate PR, Burgess AE, Bremner DH.
  53. Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using
  54. hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton
  55. process. Ultrason Sonochem 2008; 15(1): 49-54.
  56. Chakinala AG, Gogate PR, Burgess AE, Bremner DH.
  57. Industrial wastewater treatment using hydrodynamic
  58. cavitation and heterogeneous advanced Fenton
  59. processing. Chemical Engineering Journal 2009; 152:
  60. -502.
  61. Hermosilla D, Cortijo M, Huang CP. Optimizing the
  62. treatment of landfill leachate by conventional Fenton
  63. and photo-Fenton processes. Sci Total Environ 2009;
  64. (11): 3473-81.
  65. Wang C-T, Chou W-L, Chung M-H, Kuo Y-M. COD
  66. removal from real dyeing wastewater by electro-Fenton
  67. technology using an activated carbon fiber cathode.
  68. Desalination 2010; 253(1-3): 129-34.
  69. Lin SH, Jiang CD. Fenton oxidation and sequencing
  70. batch reactor (SBR) treatments of high-strength
  71. semiconductor wastewater. Desalination 2003; 154(2):
  72. -16.
  73. Andrews JP, Asaadi M, Clarke B, Ouki S. Potentially
  74. toxic element release by Fenton oxidation of sewage
  75. sludge. Water Sci Technol 2006; 54(5): 197-205.
  76. Miretzky P, Muñoz C. Enhanced metal removal from
  77. aqueous solution by Fenton activated macrophyte
  78. biomass. Desalination 2011; 271: 20-8.
  79. Gulkaya Ä°, Surucu GA, Dilek FB. Importance of H2O2/
  80. Fe2+ ratio in Fenton’s treatment of a carpet dyeing
  81. wastewater. J Hazard Mater 2006; 3(136): 763-9.
  82. Mandal T, Dasgupta D, Mandala S, Datta S. Treatment
  83. of leather industry wastewater by aerobic biological
  84. and Fenton oxidation process. J Hazard Mater 2010;
  85. (1-3): 204-11.
  86. Wang L, Yuan X, Zhong H, Wang H, Wu Z, Chen X, et
  87. al. Release behavior of heavy metals during treatment
  88. of dredged sediment by microwave-assisted hydrogen
  89. peroxide oxidation. Chemical Engineering Journal
  90. ; 258: 334-40.
  91. Pathak A, Dastidar MG, Sreekrishnan TR. Bioleaching
  92. of heavy metals from sewage sludge: A review. J
  93. Environ Manage 2009; 90(8): 2343-53.
  94. Stylianou MA, Kollia D, Haralambous K-J, Inglezakis
  95. VJ, Moustakas KG, Loizidou MD. Effect of acid
  96. treatment on the removal of heavy metals from sewage
  97. sludge. Desalination 2007; 215: 73-81.
  98. Hosseini MH, Khodadadi M, Dori H. Heavy metal
  99. concentrations in wastewater and sludgefrom
  100. the factory would Ysazy Birjand in 2010. Journal
  101. University of Medical Sciences Birjand 2013; 20(1):
  102. -93. (persion)