Document Type: Original Articles
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran;
Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Background: Atrazine is a widely used herbicide. The increasing salinity of many water resources has had a negative effect on atrazine biodegradation. The aim of this study was to isolate atrazine degrading bacteria in semi-salinity media. Methods: Nine selected bacterial species were cultivated on the mineral salt broth culture medium containing atrazine (50, 100, 500 mg/L), NaCl concentration (10 g/L), and 2% (wt/vol) agar. The bacteria with higher growths in the atrazine medium (500 mg/L) were selected. Then, those with higher growths were transferred to the medium with atrazine concentration of 1000 mg/L. The atrazine biodegradation rates by Ochrobactrum oryzae and consortium bacteria (all of the nine bacteria species) were compared by cultivating separately on the mineral salt broth containing atrazine concentration of 30 mg/l, and NaCl concentration of 10 g/L in the incubation time of 10 day and HPLC analysis. Results: The results indicated that Ochrobactrum oryzae had the highest growth compared to the other investigated bacteria (Acinetobacter radioresistens, Paenibacillus lautus, and Bacillus sp) in the mineral salt broth culture medium containing atrazine concentrations (1000 mg/L), NaCl (10 g/L), and 2% (wt/vol) agar. In the Ochrobactrum oryzae and bacterial consortium comparison, atrazine biodegradation rate in the culture medium containing NaCl, by Ochrobactrum oryzae, was higher than bacterial consortium and atrazine biodegradation rate in the culture medium with no NaCl addition, by Ochrobactrum oryzae, was lower than bacterial consortium. Conclusion: Based on the results, Ochrobactrum oryzae was significantly capable of atrazine biodegradation in the semisalinity aqueous environment.
- Dehghani M, Nasseri S, Hashemi H. Study of the bioremediation of atrazine under variable carbon and nitrogen sources by mixed bacterial consortium isolated from corn field soil in Fars Province of Iran. J Environ Public Health 2013; 1(1): 1-7.
- Baghapour MA, Dehghani M, Nasseri S. Photodegradation of Atrazine by Ultraviolet Radiation in Different Conditions. J Health Sci surveillance Sys 2015; 3(3): 94-100.
- Dehghani M, Nasseri S, Amin S, Naddafee K, Taghavi M, Yunesian M, et al. Isolation and identification of atrazine-degrading bacteria from corn field soil in Fars province of Iran. Pakistan journal of biological sciences: PJBS 2007; 10(1): 84-9.
- Nasseri S, Dehghani M, Amin S, Naddafi K, Zamanian Z. Fate of atrazine in the agricultural soil of corn fields in Fars province of Iran. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 2009; 4(6): 223-32.
- Zhang Y, Jiang Z, Cao B, Hu M, Wang Z, Dong X. Metabolic ability and gene characteristics of Arthrobacter sp. strain DNS10, the sole atrazinedegrading strain in a consortium isolated from black soil. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 2011; 65(8): 1140-4.
- Reyad AM, Radwan TE, Ibrahim WM, Essa AM. Biodegradation of atrazine by Ochrobactrum oryzae isolated from the agricultural wastewater. Wulfenia 2014; 21(4): 286-310.
- Dehghani M, Nasseri S, Amin S, Zamanian Z. Assessment of atrazine distribution in Shiraz soils, south of Iran. Pakistan journal of biological sciences: PJBS 2010; 13(2): 66-72.
- Dehghani M, Nasseri S, Amin S, Naddafi K, Yunesian M, Taghavi M, et al. Atrazine adsorption desorption behavior in Darehasaluie Kavar corn field soil in Fars Province of Iran. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 2005; 2(4): 221-8.
- Sene L, Converti A, Secchi GAR, SimÃ£o RCG. New aspects on atrazine biodegradation. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 2010; 53(2): 487-96.
- Mahia J, Martin A, Carballas T, Diaz-RaviÃ±a M. Atrazine degradation and enzyme activities in an agricultural soil under two tillage systems. Sci Total Environ 2007; 378(1): 187-94.
- Wang J, Grisle S, Schlenk D. Effects of salinity on aldicarb toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and striped bass (Morone saxatilisÃ chrysops).Toxicological Sciences 2001; 64(2): 200-7.
- Samaei MR, Mortazavi SB, Joneidi jafari A, Bakhshi B. Combined bioaugmentation and biostimulation to cleanup soil contaminated with hexadecane in slurry bioreactors. Tarbiat Modares University Faculty of Medical Sciences 2013; 59 141[persian].
- Forouzangohar M, Haghnia GH, Koocheki A. Organic amendments to enhance atrazine and metamitron degradation in two contaminated soils with contrasting textures. Soil & Sediment Contamination 2005; 14(4): 345-55.
- Ranjbar E, Haghnia GH, Lakzian A, Fotovat A. Effect of organic materials and inorganic nitrogen on biological and chemical degradation of atrazine herbicide in soil. Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 2009; 13(5): 149 61[persian].
- Vibber LL, Pressler MJ, Colores GM. Isolation and characterization of novel atrazine-degrading microorganisms from an agricultural soil. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2007; 75(4): 921-8.
- Qingyan L, Ying L, Xikun Z, Baoli C. Isolation and characterization of atrazine-degrading Arthrobacter sp. AD26 and use of this strain in bioremediation of contaminated soil. Journal of Environmental Sciences 2008; 20(10): 1226-30.
- Siripattanakul S, Wirojanagud W, McEvoy J, Limpiyakorn T, Khan E. Atrazine degradation by stable mixed cultures enriched from agricultural soil and their characterization. J Appl Microbiol 2009; 106(3): 986-92.
- Arbeli Z, Fuentes C. Prevalence of the gene trzN and biogeographic patterns among atrazine-degrading bacteria isolated from 13 Colombian agricultural soils. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2010; 73(3): 611-23.
- El SebaÃ¯ T, Devers-Lamrani M, Changey F, Rouard N, Martin-Laurent F. Evidence of atrazine mineralization in a soil from the Nile Delta: isolation of Arthrobacter sp. TES6, an atrazine-degrading strain. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 2011; 65(8): 1249-55.
- Yamada T, Takahama Y, Yamada Y. Biodegradation of 2, 4, 6-tribromophenol by Ochrobactrum sp. Strain TB01. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2008; 72(5): 1264-71.
- El-Sayed WS, Ibrahim MK, Abu-Shady M, El-Beih F, Ohmura N, Saiki H, et al. Isolation and identification of a novel strain of the genus Ochrobactrum with phenoldegrading activity. J Biosci Bioeng 2003; 96(3): 310-2.
- Zhang Y, Cao B, Jiang Z, Dong X, Hu M, Wang Z. Metabolic ability and individual characteristics of an atrazine-degrading consortium DNC5. J Hazard Mater 2012; 237: 376-81.
- Wang Q, Xie S, Hu R. Bioaugmentation with Arthrobacter sp. strain DAT1 for remediation of heavily atrazine-contaminated soil. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 2013; 77: 63-7.
- KoliÄ NU, HrÅ¡ak D, Kolar AB, PetriÄ I, StipiÄevic S, Soulas G, et al. Combined metabolic activity within an atrazine mineralizing community enriched from agrochemical factory soil. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 2007; 60(4): 299-307.
- Lin T, Wen Y, Jiang L, Li J, Yang S, Zhou Q. Study of atrazine degradation in subsurface flow constructed wetland under different salinity. Chemosphere 2008; 72(1): 122-8.
- Dehghani M, Taatizadeh SB, Samaei MR. Biodegradation of n-hexadecane in acinetobacter radioresistens liquid culture. Health Scope 2013; 2(3): 162-7.
- Rezaei D, Haghnia GH, Lakzian A, Khayyat MH, Nasiri H. Atrazine biodegradation in different concentration by pseudomonas bacteria. Plant Protection 2011; 25(2): 224-27 [persian].
- Dehghani M, Nasseri S, Zamanian Z. Biodegradation of alachlor in liquid and soil cultures under variable carbon and nitrogen sources by bacterial consortium isolated from corn field soil. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering 2013; 10(1):1-9.
- Singh P, Suri C, Cameotra SS. Isolation of a member of Acinetobacter species involved in atrazine degradation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 317(3): 697-702.
- Chaudhry V, Chauhan PS, Mishra A, Goel R, Asif MH, Mantri SS, et al. Insights from the draft genome of Paenibacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488, a promising plant growth promoting bacterium. J Biotechnol 2013; 168(4): 737-8.
- Piutti S, Semon E, Landry D, Hartmann A, Dousset S, Lichtfouse E, et al. Isolation and characterisation of Nocardioides sp. SP12, an atrazine-degrading bacterial strain possessing the gene trzN from bulk-and maize rhizosphere soil. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2003; 221(1): 111-7.
- Wang J, Zhu L, Wang Q, Wang J, Xie H. Isolation and characterization of atrazine mineralizing Bacillus subtilis strain HB-6. PloS One. 2014; 9(9): 107270.
- Smith D, Crowley DE. Contribution of ethylamine degrading bacteria to atrazine degradation in soils. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2006; 58(2): 271-7.
- Abraham J, Silambarasan S. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3, 5, 6-trichloro- 2-pyridinol using a novel bacterium Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2: A proposal of its metabolic pathway. Pestic Biochem Physiol 2016 ;126: 13-21.
- Asad S, Amoozegar M, Pourbabaee AA, Sarbolouki M, Dastgheib S. Decolorization of textile azo dyes by newly isolated halophilic and halotolerant bacteria. Bioresour Technol 2007; 98(11): 2082-8.
- Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR. Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 2004; 42(6): 565-72.
- Uygur A, KargÄ± F. Salt inhibition on biological nutrient removal from saline wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor. Enzyme Microb Technol 2004; 34(3): 313-8.
- Nitisoravut S, Klomjek P. Inhibition kinetics of saltaffected wetland for municipal wastewater treatment. Water Res 2005; 39(18): 4413-9.