Document Type: Original Articles
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Shahid Sadughi University of Medical Sciences
Background:Discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) into the environment causes significant public health and environmental problems. The purpose of this study was the treatment of hospital wastewater using an intermittent cycle extended aeration system (ICEAS).Methods:Experiments were carried out on Yazd Shohaday-e-Kargar hospital wastewater treatment system and samples were collected in a 2 month period from the influent and effluent of the system. The used pilot study carried out consisted of two zones: pre-react and main react zones. They were divided using a baffle wall. Firstly, wastewater enters a pre-react zone and then through the opening at the bottom of the baffle wall it enters the main react zone. The cycle time and flow rate for the system were considered 6 h and 2 L/h, respectively. Then, the necessary tests were performed on the system’s influent and effluent.Results:The removal of BOD5, COD, and LAS by ICEAS were 94.54%, 92.97%, and 84.99%, respectively. The averages of SVI, F/M, MLSS and MLVSS in the system were 113 mL/g, 0.086 Kg.BOD5/Kg.MLSS.d, 4327 mg/L and 3172 mg/L, respectively.Conclusions:This work showed the excellent efficiency of ICEAS to effectively remove BOD5, COD, and LAS from hospital wastewater. The results of this research can help to manage wastewater treatment in hospitals.
- Mesdaghinia A, Naddafi K, Nabizadeh R, Saeedi R, Zamanzadeh M. Wastewater characteristics and appropriate method for wastewater management in the hospitals. Iran J Public Health 2009;38(1):34-40.
- KÃ¼mmerer K. Drugs in the environment: emission of drugs, diagnostic aids and disinfectants into wastewater by hospitals in relation to other sourcesâa review. Chemosphere 2001;45(6):957-969.
- KÃ¼mmerer K, Helmers E. Hospital effluents as a source of gadolinium in the aquatic environment. Environmental science & technology 2000;34(4):573-577.
- Ahsan N. Study of widely used treatment technologies for hospital wastewater and their comparative analysis. Int J Adv Eng Tech 2012;5(1):227-240.
- Venhuis SH, Mehrvar M. Health effects, environmental impacts, and photochemical degradation of selected surfactants in water. Int J Photoenergy 2004;6(3):115-125.
- Scott MJ, Jones MN. The biodegradation of surfactants in the environment. Biochim Biophys Acta 2000;1508(1):235-251.
- Ebrahimi A, Ehrampoosh M, Samaie M, et al. Removal efficiency of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (las) in Yazd stabilization pond. J Water Wastewater 2010;4(1):38-43.
- Eslami H, Hematabadi PT, Ghelmani SV, Vaziri AS, Derakhshan Z. The Performance of Advanced Sequencing Batch Reactor in Wastewater Treatment Plant to Remove Organic Materials and Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonates. Jundishapur J Health Sci 2015;7(3):33-39.
- Zeinaddine HR, Ebrahimi A, Alipour V, Rezaei L. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorous from wastewater of seafood market by intermittent cycle extended aeration system (ICEAS). J Health Sci Surveillance Sys 2013;1(2):89-93.
- Al-Rekabi WS, Abbas AHAK, Abbas SA. Municipal wastewater treatment of basrah city using intermittent cycle extended aeration system (ICEAS). Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development 2017;21(02):1-14.
- Pirsaheb M, Azizi E, Sharafi K, Mohamadi S, Ghayebzadeh M. Removal of organic matter from municipal wastewater using ICMBBR (intermittent cycle moving bed biofilm reactor). Intl Res J Appl Basic Sci Vol 2015;9(8):1316-1322.
- Rezaee A, Ansari M, Khavanin A, Sabzali A, Aryan M. Hospital wastewater treatment using an integrated anaerobic aerobic fixed film bioreactor. Am J Environ Sci 2005;1(4):259-263.
- Mortazavi S, Khavanin A, Moussavi G, Azhdarpoor A. Removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate in an intermittent cycle extended aeration system. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 2008;11(2):290-293.
- Gelmani V, Mirhosseni Dehabadi A, Ghaneian M. Removal Efficiency of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and heavy metal by Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System from municipal wastewater (Yazd-ICEAS). J Environ Health Sustain Dev 2016;1(2):128-136.
- Goronszy MC. Intermittent operation of the extended aeration process for small systems. Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation) 1979:274-287.
- Federation WE, Association A. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association (APHA): Washington, DC, USA 2005.
- Jahn SAA, Dirar H. Studies on natural water coagulants in the Sudan, with special reference to Moringa oleifera seeds. Water Sa 1979;5(2):90-97.
- Matthijs E, Holt MS, Kiewiet A, Rijs GB. Environmental monitoring for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, alcohol ethoxylate, alcohol ethoxy sulfate, alcohol sulfate, and soap. Environ Toxicol Chem 1999;18(11):2634-2644.
- Henau HD, Mathijs E, Hopping W. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in sewage sludges, soils and sediments: Analytical determination and environmental safety considerations. Int J Environ Anal Chem 1986;26(3-4):279-293.
- WHO. A compendium of standards for wastewater reuse in the eastern Mediterranean region. Egypt: World Health Organization; 2006:1-24.
- Nasr MM, Yazdanbakhsh A. Study on wastewater treatment systems in hospitals of Iran. J Environ Health Sci Eng 2008;5(3):211-215.
- Sarafraz S, Khani M, Yaghmaeian K. Quality and quantity survey of hospital wastewaters in Hormozgan province. J Environ Health Sci Eng 2007;4(1):43-50.
- Maranon E, Vazquez I, Rodriguez J, Castrillon L, Fernandez Y, Lopez H. Treatment of coke wastewater in a sequential batch reactor (SBR) at pilot plant scale. Bioresour Technol 2008;99(10):4192-4198.
- Mojiri A, Aziz HA, Zaman NQ, Aziz SQ, Zahed MA. Powdered ZELIAC augmented sequencing batch reactors (SBR) process for co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater. J Environ Manage 2014;139:1-14.
- Jadhao R, Dawande S. Effect of Hydraulic Retention Time on Operating Parameters in Membrane Bioreactor System for Wastewater Treatment. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2012;3(4):1459-1469.
- Altin A, Altin S, Degirmenci M. Characteristics and treatability of hospital(medical) wastewaters. Fresenius Environ Bull 2003;12(9):1098-1108.
- Palm JC, Jenkins D, Parker DS. Relationship between organic loading, dissolved oxygen concentration and sludge settleability in the completely-mixed activated sludge process. J Water Pollut Control Fed 1980:2484-2506.
- Albertson OE. The control of bulking sludges: from the early innovators to current practice. J Water Pollut Control Fed 1987;59(4):172-182.
- Daigger G, Roper Jr R. The relationship between SVI and activated sludge settling characteristics. J Water Pollut Control Fed 1985;57(8):859-866.
- Chang W, Chiou R, Ouyang C. The effect of residual substrate utilization on sludge settling in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. Water Sci Technol 1996;34(1-2):425-430.
- Fernandes H, Jungles MK, Hoffmann H, Antonio RV, Costa RH. Full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for domestic wastewater: performance and diversity of microbial communities. Bioresour Technol 2013;132:262-268.
- Yigit N, Uzal N, Koseoglu H, et al. Treatment of a denim producing textile industry wastewater using pilot-scale membrane bioreactor. Desalination 2009;240(1-3):143-150.