Document Type: Original Articles
Background:Air pollutants have harmful impacts on human health and aggravation of diseases and mortality. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of PM10, NO2, SO2, and O3 on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and hospital admissions in Shiraz during 2012-2013.Methods: The health impact of pollutants was quantified using AirQ2.2.3 model provided by WHO Regional Office-European Center for Environment and Health. In addition, Generalized Additive Model (GAM) in R was used to investigate the relationship between pollutants and disease and mortality.Results:According to the results of quantification with WHO’s default values for Baseline Incidence (BI) and Relative Risk (RR) as well as the number of hospital admissions related to PM10 (1,375 cases in 2012 and 874 ones in 2013), it has been observed that respiratory diseases have had the highest health impacts. On the other hand, an assessment using regional values for BI and RR indicated that the highest health impacts were related to respiratory diseases due to exposure to O3 with 134 and 252 cases in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Moreover, significant relationships were observed among PM10, NO2, and O3 and respiratory mortality, hospital admissions due to cardiovascular diseases, and hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in patients aging 65 years and older.Conclusion:Overall, the results showed that due to different geographical, statistical, and climatic features of each region, WHO’s default values for BI and RR cannot be used normally in some cases. Thus, calculated BI and RR values should be used for such cases. However, further research is needed to assess the health impacts of air pollutants in terms of BI and RR specific to the study region.
- Aynul, B., Warren B, 2017. Concentrations, sources and human health risk of inhalation exposure to air toxics in Edmonton, Canada, Chemosphere, 173, 160-171.
- Scottish Statutory Instrument., 2010. The Air Quality Standards (Scotland) Regulations 2010. Scottish Statutory Instrument. 204, 27.
- Molina, L.T., Molina, M.J., Slott, R., Kolb, C.E., Gbor, P.K., Meng, F., et al., 2004. Air quality in selected megacities: online version of the 2004 critical review on megacities and atmospheric pollution. J. Air.Waste. Manage. Assoc. ISSN: 1047-3289 55. ISSN: 1047â3289.
- Gurjar, B.R., Butler, T.M., Lawrence, M.G., Lelieveld, J., 2008. Evaluation of emissions and air quality in megacities. Atmos. Environ. 42, 1593â1606.
- Gurjar, B.R., Lelieveld, J., 2005. New directions: megacities and global change. Atmos. Environ. 39, 391â393.
- Downs, S.H., Schindler, C., Liu, L.J., Keidel, D., Bayer, L., Brutsche, M.H., et al., 2007. Reduced exposure to PM10 and attenuated age-related decline in lung function. N. Engl. J. Med. 357, 2338â2347.
- Gauderman, W.J., Vora, H., McConnell, R., Berhane, K., Gilliland, F., Thomas, D., et al., 2007. Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort study. Lancet 369, 571â577.
- Gryparis, A., Forsberg, B., Katsouyanni, K., Analitis, A., Touloumi, G., Schwartz, J., et al,. 2004. Acute Effects of Ozone on Mortality from the âAir Pollution and Health: A European Approachâ Project, American j. respiratory . critical. Care. med .170, 1080â1087.
- Pope, C.A., Dockery, D.W., 2006. Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines that Connect, J. Air . Waste. Manag. Assoc. 56, 709â742.
- Schwartz, J., 1999. Air pollution and hospital admissions for heart disease in eight U.S. counties. Epidemiology, 10, 17â22.
- Lee, J.T., Kim, H., Hong, Y.C., Kwon, H.J., Schwartz, J., Christiani, D.C., 2000. Air Pollution and daily mortality in seven major cities of Korea, 1991 1997, Environ. Res , 84: 247â254.
- Fattore, E., Paiano, V., Borgini, A., Tittarelli, A., Bertoldi, M., Crosignani, P., Fanelli, R., 2011. Human health risk in relation to air quality in two municipalities in an industrialized area of Northern Italy, Environ. Res. 111, 1321â1327.
- Martuzzi, M., Galassi, C., Ostro, B., Forastiere, F., Bertollini, R., 2002. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in the Eight Major Italian Cities. WHO Europe. EURO/02/5040650. /http:// www.euro.who.int/ healthimpactS.
- Gurjar, B., Jain, A., Sharma, A., Agarwal, A., Gupta, P., Nagpure, A.S., Lelieveld, J., 2010. Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution, Atmos. Environ. 44(36), 4606â4613.
- Shakour, A.A., El-Shahat. M.F., El-Taieb, N.M., Hassanein, M.A., Mohamed, A.M.F., 2011. Health Impacts of Particulate Matter in Greater Cairo, Egypt. J. American Sci. 7(9), 840â848.
- Mohammadi, A., Azhdarpoor, A., Shahsavani, A., Tabatabaee, H., 2016. Investigating the Health Effects of Exposure to Criteria Pollutants Using AirQ2.2.3 in Shiraz, Iran. Aerosol . Air Quality Res, 16: 1035â1043.
- Oliveri C., Behzad H., Itai K., Maria F., Margherita Ferrante. A review of AirQ Models and their applications for forecasting the air pollution health outcomes. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. DOI 10.1007/s11356-016-8180-1.
- Martuzzi, M., Mitis, M., Iavarone, I., Serinelli, M., 2006. Health Impact of PM10 and Ozone in 13 Italian Cities. WHOEurope. Avalibale from: /http:// www.euro.who.int/ pubreques.
- Ostro, B., Broadwin, R., Green, S., Feng, W. Y., Lipsett, M., 2006. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in Nine California Counties: Results from CALFINE; Environ. Health. Perspect. 114, 29â33.
- Jeong, S.J., 2013. The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health in Suwon City. Asian J. Atmosph. Environ 7(4), 227â233.
- Bell, M.L., Peng, R.D., Dominici, F., 2006. The exposureâresponse curve for ozone and risk of mortality and the adequacy of current ozone regulations. Environ. Health. Perspect. 114, 532â536.
- Samoli, E., Analitis, A., Touloumi, G., Schwartz, J., Anderson, H.R., Sunyer, J., et al., 2005. Estimating the exposure-response relationships between particulate matter and mortality within the APHEA multicity project. Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 88â95.