Document Type: Original Articles



During the last two centuries, human being has emitted huge amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, by providing energy from fossil fuels. The increasing accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere has led to "global warming" and as a result "climate change". This inauspicious phenomenon has such a wide domain that threat the survival of the human around the world. The sharp decline in fresh water sources and strategic agricultural products and severe destruction of environment are just some inevitable adverse effects of climate change. Therefore, it would be a proper ground for breaching some of the most important human rights. The aim of this research is to show effects of climate change on "right to health" and some other related rights, and therefore responsibilities of governments to fight against that.  Conclusion: Climate change due to human activities, makes a proper field for breach of human rights globally, and as we see "right to health" is affected absolutely. According to principal of "common but differentiated responsibilities", most of the burdens of combating against climate change are on the shoulders of developed states and developing countries have much less obligations; but at least have common responsibilities. Rather, all of the states have clear international obligations for protecting human rights in their territories. Therefore any state must separately or together with others, take urgent and also long term measures to fight this phenomenon. If climate change continues; negligence of states in performing due diligence in this regard may lead to their international responsibility or even their incapability for governing the state in accordance with "good governance principles".


  1. Http:// No Title.
  2. Global CO2 Emissions: 2015 Report, Background Study, PBL Netherlands Environmental.
  3. Assessment Agency. Available at:
  4. Goldemberg J, sociedade PG-A&, 2012 undefined. Climate Change and" historical responsibilities" SciELO Bras [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jul 22]; Available from:
  5. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Changes. 1992;
  6. Paris Climate Agreement. 2015.
  7. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, Adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna, 1993, Paragraph 2.
  8. Ibid, Art. 5.
  9. Yamin AE. The right to health under international law and its relevance to the United States [Internet]. Vol. 95, American Journal of Public Health. 2005 [cited 2018 Jul 28]. p. 1156–61. Available from:
  10. The Right to Health, World Health Organization, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Fact Sheet No. 31.
  11. U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. General Comment 14: The Right to Hoghest Attainable Standard of Health, Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations: 2000. UN Document E/C.12/2000/4.
  12. - International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. 1966.
  13. - International Covenant on Economic, Social and cultural Rights. 1966.
  14. Craven M. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A perspective on its development. A perspective on its development. Clarendon Press; 1995. 413 p.
  15. Article 12(2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).
  16. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1948.
  17. Zamani SG. Medical Simulation and Right to Health in the Realm of International Human Rights. J Public Law Res. 2007;(19):25–40.
  18. Javid, Ehsan, Niyavarani S. The Realm of Right to Health in International Regime of Human Rights. J Public Law Res. 2014;(41):7–70.
  19. Masoudi, Ali, T. International Environmental Law in Virtue of Role of International Court of Justice in its Development,. In: Majd Scientific and Cultural Publications, Iran. 2015.
  20. Boyd DR. The Environmental Rights Revolution: A Global Study of Constitutions, Human Rights, and the Environment, Vancouver University of British Columbia Press. 2012. 12 p.
  21. Shelton D. "Human Rights, Health and Environmental Protection: Linkage in Law and Practice. In 2002. p. 26.
  22. Molaee Y. Right to Development and Universality of Human Rights. J Law Polit Sci. 2002;(56):49–83.
  23. Varesi, Hamid Reza, Mohammadi B. The Role of Human Factor in Climate Change and Evaluation of its Effects. Sp Geogr J. 2007;(20):131–59.
  24. Abdollahi, Mohsen, Mashhadi, Ali, Faryadi M. The Law of Air Protection. In: Mizan Publication. 2012.
  25. The United Nations World Water Development Report,. 2016.
  27. Human Rights Council Resolutions 29/15 and 32/33.
  28. The Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No. 15, The Right of the Child to the enjoyment of the highest Attainable Standard of Health (Art. 24),. 2013.
  29. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Key Messages on Human Rights and Climate Changes. 2015.
  30. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC), Climate Change Synthesis Report. 2014.
  31. DARA, Climate Vulnerability Monitor: A Guide to the Cold Calculus of a Hot Planet, 2ed Edition. 2012.
  32. Hales S, Kovats S, Lloyd S, Campbell-Lendrum D. Quantitative risk assessment of the effects of climate change on selected causes of death, 2030s and 2050s [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2018 Jul 28]. Available from:
  33. Burke M, Hsiang SM, Miguel E. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production. Nature [Internet]. 2015 Nov 21 [cited 2018 Jul 28];527(7577):235–9. Available from:
  34. Rahami R. Study on Duty of States in Maintaining Individual Security of Human. J Public Law Res. 2015;(42):185–211.
  35. Kivalina v. Exxonmobil Corporation et al. United States District Court. 2008.
  36. Inuit v. United States of America and Others, Inter-American Court of Human Rights. 2005.
  37. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, Adopted by World Conference on Human Rights. 1993.
  38. Declaration of Universal Conference on Human Settlement, Istanbul. 1996.
  39. United Nations General assembly Resolution no. 64/292, (28 July 2010). 2010.
  40. Rowlands D, Frame D, Ackerley D, … TA-N, 2012 U. Broad range of 2050 warming from an observationally constrained large climate model ensemble. [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jul 28]; Available from:
  41. United Nations World Water Development Report; Water and Jobs. 2016.
  42. American Declaration of Rights and Duties of Man. 1948.
  43. Ebrahimgol A. Right to Food, A Perquisite for Realization of other Rights, Semi Annual. J Int Law Rev. 2009;(39):221–243.
  44. Göcke K. Protection and Realization of Indigenous Peoples’ Land Rights at the National and International Level. Goettingen J Int Law [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2018 Jul 28];1(5):87–154. Available from:§ion=8
  45. Tavoosi T. Process of Climate Change and Coastal Geography, Scientific-Research Quarterly of Geographical Data (SEPEHR). In 1999. p. 18–28.
  46. Ghaderi B. Ten Places that will Disappear from Geographic Maps, Ardal Geography Educational Group. 2014.
  47. The Second National Communication of I. R. Iran to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Costal Areas par. 2013.
  48. Abate RS, Kronk EA. Commonality Among Unique Indigenous Communities : An Introduction to Climate Change and Its Impacts on Indigenous Peoples. Tulane Environ Law J [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2018 Jul 28];26(2):179–96. Available from:
  49. Filho WL. Climate change and governance: state of affairs and actions needed. Int J Glob Warm [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2018 Jul 28];2(2):128. Available from:
  50. Bagherzadeh, Ali, Ahangari L. Analyses of the relation of Good Governance and Environmental Pollution in selected states. In: International Conference on Green Economy, Iran, Babolsar. 2014.
  51. Declaration of the President of the Security Council, S/23500, January 1992. 1992.
  52. Baylis J. International and Global Security in the Post-Cold War Era, Oxford University Press. In 2014. p. 29.
  53. See: