Background: With the advancement of nanotechnology, nanoparticles have been applied in our modern society. However, the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on organisms have not been thoroughly clarified yet. Considering the migration of nanoparticles in food and its subsequent consumption by humans, we have employed normal cell line, the African green monkey kidney cell line (Vero) for evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of the silver nanoparticles. Currently, there are various approaches to perform toxicity tests. In this study, we investigated the effects of citrate-based silver nanoparticles on Vero cells to explore the adverse effects of these nanoparticles.
Methods: In an experimental work, to synthetize silver nanoparticles, silver nitrate and citric acid were used. Nanoparticles were further characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Cells were exposed to various concentrations of the nanoparticles (1.56 to 1000 µg/ml) for 24 h and 48h. The cytotoxic activity and apoptosis were determined using MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, respectively.
Results: The present study showed a dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles with log IC50 values of ~ 10.68 and 2.06 µg/ml for 24 h and 48 h, respectively on Vero cell lines. Analysis by AO/EB staining indicated that the silver nanoparticles induced apoptosis in the cell lines.
Conclusion: Silver nanoparticles revealed cytotoxic effects on the Vero cells which was associated with the method of synthesis of silver nanoparticles.