Document Type: Review Articles


1 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Larestan University of Medical Sciences, Larestan, Iran

2 Department of Paramedical School, Gerash University of Medical Sciences, Gerash, Iran

3 Student Research Committee, Larestan University of Medical Sciences, Larestan, Iran


Water pipe tobacco smoking with biological, psychological and social dimensions is one of the problems of the present age. The purpose of this article was to investigate the factors affecting the use of hookah among women. This article is a review study conducted by searching the scientific databases using search engines in the articles published in Scopus, Pubmed, Google scholar databases as well as the general Google search engine using the keywords hookah, Shisha, water pipe, tobacco, women. A rapid literature search strategy was conducted for all theEnglish language literature published before January 2020. The findings of this study indicate the effect of multiple personal, social and family factors on the initiation and continuation of water pipe tobacco smoking among women. Therefore, it seems that with regard to these risk factors, appropriate programs and interventions for prevention of water pipe tobacco smoking use among women can be considered.


1.         Alwan A. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010: World Health Organization; 2011.

2.         Ezzati M, Lopez AD. Regional, disease specific patterns of smoking-attributable mortality in 2000. Tobacco control. 2004;13(4):388-95.

3.         Organization WH, Control RfIT. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: the MPOWER package: World Health Organization; 2008.


5.         Tachfouti N, Raherison C, Obtel M, Nejjari C. Mortality attributable to tobacco: review of different methods. Archives of public health. 2014;72(1):22.

6.         Apelberg B, Aghi M, Asma S, Donaldson E, Yeong C, Vaithinathan R. Prevalence of tobacco use and factors influencing initiation and maintenance among women. Gender, women, and the tobacco epidemic Geneva: World Health Organization. 2010:29-50.

7.         Doskoch P. Many pregnant women use tobacco in some developing countries. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2008;34(4):199-201.

8.         Amos A, Greaves L, Nichter M, Bloch M. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice. Tobacco control. 2012;21(2):236-43.

9.         Rahmanian SD, Diaz PT, Wewers ME. Tobacco use and cessation among women: research and treatment-related issues. Journal of Women's Health. 2011;20(3):349-57.

10.       Alves J, Perelman J, Soto-Rojas V, Richter M, Rimpelä A, Loureiro I, et al. The role of parental smoking on adolescent smoking and its social patterning: a cross-sectional survey in six European cities. Journal of Public Health. 2017;39(2):339-46.

11.       Engels RC, Vitaro F, Blokland EDE, de Kemp R, Scholte RH. Influence and selection processes in friendships and adolescent smoking behaviour: the role of parental smoking. Journal of adolescence. 2004;27(5):531-44.

12.       Vuolo M, Staff J. Parent and child cigarette use: a longitudinal, multigenerational study. Pediatrics. 2013;132(3):e568-e77.

13.       Killen JD, Robinson TN, Haydel KF, Hayward C, Wilson DM, Hammer LD, et al. Prospective study of risk factors for the initiation of cigarette smoking. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology. 1997;65(6):1011.

14.       Abdulrashid OA, Balbaid O, Ibrahim A, Shah HB. Factors contributing to the upsurge of water-pipe tobacco smoking among Saudi females in selected Jeddah cafés and restaurants: A mixed method study. Journal of family & community medicine. 2018;25(1):13.

15.       Bandura A. Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Psychology and health. 1998;13(4):623-49.

16.       Alesci NL, Forster JL, Blaine T. Smoking visibility, perceived acceptability, and frequency in various locations among youth and adults. Preventive medicine. 2003;36(3):272-81.

17.       Arnett JJ. The myth of peer influence in adolescent smoking initiation. Health Education & Behavior. 2007;34(4):594-607.

18.       Green KJ, Hunter CM, Bray RM, Pemberton M, Williams J. Peer and role model influences for cigarette smoking in a young adult military population. Nicotine & tobacco research. 2008;10(10):1533-41.

19.       Jackson C. Initial and experimental stages of tobacco and alcohol use during late childhood: Relation to peer, parent, and personal risk factors. Addictive behaviors. 1997;22(5):685-98.

20.       Taylor JE, Conard MW, O'Byrne KK, Haddock CK, Poston WC. Saturation of tobacco smoking models and risk of alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2004;35(3):190-6.

21.       den Exter Blokland EA, Engels RC, Hale III WW, Meeus W, Willemsen MC. Lifetime parental smoking history and cessation and early adolescent smoking behavior. Preventive medicine. 2004;38(3):359-68.

22.       Gilman SE, Rende R, Boergers J, Abrams DB, Buka SL, Clark MA, et al. Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: an intergenerational perspective on tobacco control. Pediatrics. 2009;123(2):e274-e81.

23.       Paavola M, Vartiainen E, Puska P. Smoking cessation between teenage years and adulthood. Health education research. 2001;16(1):49-57.

24.       Afifi R, Khalil J, Fouad F, Hammal F, Jarallah Y, Farhat HA, et al. Social norms and attitudes linked to waterpipe use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Social Science & Medicine. 2013;98:125-34.

25.       Dadipoor S, Kok G, Aghamolaei T, Ghaffari M, Heyrani A, Ghanbarnezhad A. Explaining the determinants of hookah consumption among women in southern Iran: a qualitative study. BMC public health. 2019;19(1):1-13.

26.       Akl EA, Gaddam S, Gunukula SK, Honeine R, Jaoude PA, Irani J. The effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes: a systematic review. International journal of epidemiology. 2010;39(3):834-57.

27.       Hammal F, Mock J, Ward K, Eissenberg T, Maziak W. A pleasure among friends: how narghile (waterpipe) smoking differs from cigarette smoking in Syria. Tobacco Control. 2008;17(2):e3-e.

28.       Maziak W, Ward KD, Soweid RA, Eissenberg T. Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe: a re-emerging strain in a global epidemic. Tobacco control. 2004;13(4):327-33.

29.       Neergaard J, Singh P, Job J, Montgomery S. Waterpipe smoking and nicotine exposure: a review of the current evidence. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2007;9(10):987-94.

30.       Momoh S, Imhonde H, Omagbe E. The role of gender, self-efficacy, age and extroversion on smoking behaviour among Ambrose Alli University Students, Ekpoma, Nigeria. Journal of International Women's Studies. 2008;10(2):134-40.

31.       Baheiraei A, Sighaldeh SS, Ebadi A, Kelishadi R, Majdzadeh SR. Psycho-social needs impact on hookah smoking initiation among women: a qualitative study from Iran. International journal of preventive medicine. 2015;6.

32.       Buczkowski K, Basinska MA, Ratajska A, Lewandowska K, Luszkiewicz D, Sieminska A. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2017;14(2):126.

33.       Elkind AK. The social definition of women's smoking behaviour. Social Science & Medicine. 1985;20(12):1269-78.

34.       Yoshimura K. The psychological characteristcs of tobacco dependence in a rural area of japan. Journal of epidemiology. 2000;10(4):271-9.

35.       Xu X, Leung DYP, Li B, Wang P, Zhao Y. Smoking-related knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints among new undergraduates in Chongqing, China. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2015;12(1):895-909.

36.       Baheiraei A, Mirghafourvand M, Mohammadi E, Majdzadeh R. Experiences of cigarette smoking among Iranian educated women: A qualitative study. International journal of preventive medicine. 2016;7.

37.       Portnoy DB, Wu CC, Tworek C, Chen J, Borek N. Youth curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars: prevalence and associations with advertising. American journal of preventive medicine. 2014;47(2):S76-S86.

38.       Pierce JP, Distefan JM, Kaplan RM, Gilpin EA. The role of curiosity in smoking initiation. Addictive behaviors. 2005;30(4):685-96.

39.       Lansford JE. Reward seeking and self-regulation: Changing the environment to prevent adolescent pregnancy. American Public Health Association; 2018.

40.       Arain M, Haque M, Johal L, Mathur P, Nel W, Rais A, et al. Maturation of the adolescent brain. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 2013;9:449.

41.       Pierce JP, Choi WS, Gilpin EA, Farkas AJ, Merritt RK. Validation of susceptibility as a predictor of which adolescents take up smoking in the United States. Health psychology. 1996;15(5):355.

42.       Baheiraei A, Sighaldeh SS, Ebadi A, Kelishadi R, Majdzadeh R. The role of family on hookah smoking initiation in women: a qualitative study. Global journal of health science. 2015;7(5):1.

43.       Labib N, Radwan G, Mikhail N, Mohamed MK, El Setouhy M, Loffredo C, et al. Comparison of cigarette and water pipe smoking among female university students in Egypt. Nicotine & tobacco research. 2007;9(5):591-6.

44.       Health UDo, Services H. Women and smoking: A report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General. 2001.

45.       Health UDo, Services H. A report of the surgeon general: how tobacco smoke causes disease: what it means to you. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. 2010.

46.       Control CfD, Prevention. Smoking during pregnancy--United States, 1990-2002. MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 2004;53(39):911.

47.       McBride CM, Emmons KM, Lipkus IM. Understanding the potential of teachable moments: the case of smoking cessation. Health education research. 2003;18(2):156-70.

48.       Kahn RS, Certain L, Whitaker RC. A reexamination of smoking before, during, and after pregnancy. American Journal of Public Health. 2002;92(11):1801-8.

49.       Sipiora M, Murtaugh M, Gregoire M, Duffy V. Bitter taste perception and severe vomiting in pregnancy. Physiology & behavior. 2000;69(3):259-67.

50.       Kölble N, Hummel T, von Mering R, Huch A, Huch R. Gustatory and olfactory function in the first trimester of pregnancy. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2001;99(2):179-83.

51.       Pletsch PK, Pollak KI, Peterson BL, Park J, Oncken CA, Swamy GK, et al. Olfactory and gustatory sensory changes to tobacco smoke in pregnant smokers. Research in nursing & health. 2008;31(1):31-41.

52.       Eiden RD, Homish GG, Colder CR, Schuetze P, Gray TR, Huestis MA. Changes in smoking patterns during pregnancy. Substance use & misuse. 2013;48(7):513-22.

53.       Ajzen I, Fishbein M. Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological bulletin. 1977;84(5):888.

54.       Godin G, Kok G. The theory of planned behavior: a review of its applications to health-related behaviors. American journal of health promotion. 1996;11(2):87-98.

55.       Ajzen I. The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50 (2), 179-211. View at. 1991.

56.       Barnett TE, Shensa A, Kim KH, Cook RL, Nuzzo E, Primack BA. The predictive utility of attitudes toward hookah tobacco smoking. American journal of health behavior. 2013;37(4):433-9.

57.       Smith-Simone S, Maziak W, Ward KD, Eissenberg T. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior in two US samples. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2008;10(2):393-8.

58.       Maziak W, Eissenberg T, Rastam S, Hammal F, Asfar T, Bachir ME, et al. Beliefs and attitudes related to narghile (waterpipe) smoking among university students in Syria. Annals of epidemiology. 2004;14(9):646-54.

59.       Heinz AJ, Giedgowd GE, Crane NA, Veilleux JC, Conrad M, Braun AR, et al. A comprehensive examination of hookah smoking in college students: use patterns and contexts, social norms and attitudes, harm perception, psychological correlates and co-occurring substance use. Addictive behaviors. 2013;38(11):2751-60.

60.       Roohafza H, Kasaei Z, Heidari K, Omidi R, Alinia T, Naji M, et al. Better view on attitudes and perceived parental reactions behind waterpipe smoking among Iranian students. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 2015;20(11):1032.

61.       Roskin J, Aveyard P. Canadian and English students' beliefs about waterpipe smoking: a qualitative study. BMC public health. 2009;9(1):10.

62.       Braun RE, Glassman T, Wohlwend J, Whewell A, Reindl DM. Hookah use among college students from a Midwest University. Journal of community health. 2012;37(2):294-8.

63.       Combrink A, Irwin N, Laudin G, Naidoo K, Plagerson S, Mathee A. High prevalence of hookah smoking among secondary school students in a disadvantaged community in Johannesburg. SAMJ: South African Medical Journal. 2010;100(5):297-9.

64.       Erbaydar NP, Bilir N, Yildiz AN. Knowledge, behaviors and health hazard perception among Turkish narghile (waterpipe)-smokers related to narghile smoking. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010;26(1).

65.       Zvolensky MJ, McMillan K, Gonzalez A, Asmundson GJ. Chronic pain and cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence among a representative sample of adults. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2009;11(12):1407-14.

66.       Palmer KT, Syddall H, Cooper C, Coggon D. Smoking and musculoskeletal disorders: findings from a British national survey. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2003;62(1):33-6.

67.       Gonzalez A, Hogan J, McLeish AC, Zvolensky MJ. An evaluation of pain-related anxiety among daily cigarette smokers in terms of negative and positive reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies. Addictive behaviors. 2010;35(6):553-7.

68.       Hooten WM, Shi Y, Gazelka HM, Warner DO. The effects of depression and smoking on pain severity and opioid use in patients with chronic pain. PAIN®. 2011;152(1):223-9.

69.       John U, Alte D, Hanke M, Meyer C, Völzke H, Schumann A. Tobacco smoking in relation to analgesic drug use in a national adult population sample. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2006;85(1):49-55.

70.       Fishbain DA, Lewis JE, Gao J, Cole B, Steele Rosomoff R. Are chronic low back pain patients who smoke at greater risk for suicide ideation? Pain Medicine. 2009;10(2):340-6.

71.       Hooten WM, Townsend CO, Bruce BK, Warner DO. The effects of smoking status on opioid tapering among patients with chronic pain. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2009;108(1):308-15.

72.       Leatherdale ST, Ahmed R. Second-hand smoke exposure in homes and in cars among Canadian youth: current prevalence, beliefs about exposure, and changes between 2004 and 2006. Cancer Causes & Control. 2009;20(6):855-65.

73.       Adams KK, Beem A, Diener E, Merritt TA. Protecting the vulnerable: the importance of effective parental tobacco-dependence treatment during prenatal and newborn care. Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology. 2012;25(1):3-10.

74.       Levy DT, Chaloupka F, Gitchell J. The effects of tobacco control policies on smoking rates: a tobacco control scorecard. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 2004;10(4):338-53.

75.       Passey ME, Gale JT, Sanson-Fisher RW. " It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study. BMC Women's Health. 2011;11(1):55.

76.       Mak K-K, Ho S-Y, Day JR. Smoking of parents and best friend—independent and combined effects on adolescent smoking and intention to initiate and quit smoking. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2012;14(9):1057-64.

77.       Hovell M, Daniel J. Defining residential tobacco home policies: a behavioural and cultural perspective. Archives of disease in childhood. 2005;90(7):661-2.

78.       Primack BA, Hopkins M, Hallett C, Carroll MV, Zeller M, Dachille K, et al. US health policy related to hookah tobacco smoking. American journal of public health. 2012;102(9):e47-e51.

79.       Kirby J. Health warning to shisha smokers. The Independent. 2012;14.

80.       Kegler MC, Malcoe LH. Smoking restrictions in the home and car among rural Native American and white families with young children. Preventive medicine. 2002;35(4):334-42.

81.       Hovell MF, Hughes SC. The behavioral ecology of secondhand smoke exposure: A pathway to complete tobacco control. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2009;11(11):1254-64.

82.       Porcellato L, Dugdill L, Springett J, Sanderson F. Primary schoolchildrens' perceptions of smoking: implications for health education. Health Education Research. 1999;14(1):71-83.

83.       Mercken L, Candel M, Van Osch L, De Vries H. No smoke without fire: The impact of future friends on adolescent smoking behaviour. British journal of health psychology. 2011;16(1):170-88.

84.       Leonardi-Bee J, Jere ML, Britton J. Exposure to parental and sibling smoking and the risk of smoking uptake in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax. 2011;66(10):847-55.

85.       Joung MJ, Han MA, Park J, Ryu SY. Association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior and e-cigarette use in Korea. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2016;13(12):1183.

86.       Muzammil DS, Al Rethaiaa AS, Al Mutairi AS, Al Rashidi TH, Al Rasheedi HA, Al Rasheedi SA. Prevalence and perception of shisha smoking among university students: A cross-sectional study. Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry. 2019;9(3):275.

87.       Mackay J, Amos A. Women and tobacco. Respirology. 2003;8(2):123-30.

88.       Bottorff JL, Haines-Saah R, Kelly MT, Oliffe JL, Torchalla I, Poole N, et al. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review. International journal for equity in health. 2014;13(1):114.

89.       Greaves L. The meanings of smoking to women and their implications for cessation. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2015;12(2):1449-65.

90.       Chezhian C, Murthy S, PraSad S, KaSav JB, Mohan SK, Sharma S, et al. Exploring factors that influence smoking initiation and cessation among current smokers. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2015;9(5):LC08.

91.       Binnal A, Rajesh G, Ahmed J, Denny C, Nayak SU. Insights into smoking and its cessation among current smokers in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(5):2811-8.

92.       Shuja M, Sarrafzadegan N, Roohafza HR, Sadeghi M, Ghafari M, Mohammadian M, et al. Factors associated with cigarette smoking in central parts of Iran. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2017;18(3):647.

93.       Ainslie G, George A. Breakdown of will: Cambridge University Press; 2001.

94.       Peretti-Watel P, Constance J. “It’s all we got left”. Why poor smokers are less sensitive to cigarette price increases. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2009;6(2):608-21.

95.       Baheiraei A, Sighaldeh SS, Ebadi A, Kelishadi R, Majdzadeh R. Factors that contribute in the first hookah smoking trial by women: a qualitative study from Iran. Iranian journal of public health. 2015;44(1):100.

96.       Hogarth L, Duka T. Human nicotine conditioning requires explicit contingency knowledge: is addictive behaviour cognitively mediated? Psychopharmacology. 2006;184(3-4):553-66.

97.       Herman AI, DeVito EE, Jensen KP, Sofuoglu M. Pharmacogenetics of nicotine addiction: role of dopamine. Pharmacogenomics. 2014;15(2):221-34.

98.       Fidler JA, West R. Self-perceived smoking motives and their correlates in a general population sample. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2009;11(10):1182-8.

99.       Laursen B, Hartl AC. Understanding loneliness during adolescence: Developmental changes that increase the risk of perceived social isolation. Journal of Adolescence. 2013;36(6):1261-8.

100.     Schrempft S, Jackowska M, Hamer M, Steptoe A. Associations between social isolation, loneliness, and objective physical activity in older men and women. BMC public health. 2019;19(1):74.

101.     Kobayashi LC, Steptoe A. Social isolation, loneliness, and health behaviors at older ages: longitudinal cohort study. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2018;52(7):582-93.

102.     Richard A, Rohrmann S, Vandeleur CL, Schmid M, Barth J, Eichholzer M. Loneliness is adversely associated with physical and mental health and lifestyle factors: Results from a Swiss national survey. PloS one. 2017;12(7).

103.     Christopherson TM, Conner BT. Mediation of Late Adolescent Health‐Risk Behaviors and Gender Influences. Public Health Nursing. 2012;29(6):510-24.

104.     Peltzer K. Prevalence and correlates of substance use among school children in six African countries. International Journal of psychology. 2009;44(5):378-86.

105.     Cacioppo JT, Hawkley LC, Crawford LE, Ernst JM, Burleson MH, Kowalewski RB, et al. Loneliness and health: Potential mechanisms. Psychosomatic medicine. 2002;64(3):407-17.

106.     Grunbaum JA, Tortolero S, Weller N, Gingiss P. Cultural, social, and intrapersonal factors associated with substance use among alternative high school students. Addictive behaviors. 2000;25(1):145-51.

107.     Khantzian EJ. The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders: focus on heroin and cocaine dependence.  The cocaine crisis: Springer; 1987. p. 65-74.

108.     DeWall CN, Pond Jr RS. Loneliness and smoking: The costs of the desire to reconnect. Self and Identity. 2011;10(3):375-85.

109.     Borges M, Simoes-Barbosa RH. Cigarette as" companion": a critical gender approach to women's smoking. Cadernos de saude publica. 2008;24(12):2834-42.

110.     Kozlowski LT, Herman CP. The Interaction of Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Tobacco Use: More on the Boundary Model 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1984;14(3):244-56.

111.     Shadel WG, Shiffman S, Niaura R, Nichter M, Abrams DB. Current models of nicotine dependence: what is known and what is needed to advance understanding of tobacco etiology among youth. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2000;59:9-22.

112.     Nestler EJ. Is there a common molecular pathway for addiction? Nature neuroscience. 2005;8(11):1445-9.

113.     Benowitz NL. Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction, smoking-induced disease, and therapeutics. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2009;49:57-71.

114.     Shiffman S, Gwaltney CJ, Balabanis MH, Liu KS, Paty JA, Kassel JD, et al. Immediate antecedents of cigarette smoking: an analysis from ecological momentary assessment. 2009.

115.     Ikard FF, Green DE, Horn D. A scale to differentiate between types of smoking as related to the management of affect. International Journal of the Addictions. 1969;4(4):649-59.

116.     Carter BL, Robinson JD, Lam CY, Wetter DW, Tsan JY, Day SX, et al. A psychometric evaluation of cigarette stimuli used in a cue reactivity study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2006;8(3):361-9.

117.     Ferguson SG, Shiffman S. The relevance and treatment of cue-induced cravings in tobacco dependence. Journal of substance abuse treatment. 2009;36(3):235-43.

118.     Rastam S, Eissenberg T, Ibrahim I, Ward KD, Khalil R, Maziak W. Comparative analysis of waterpipe and cigarette suppression of abstinence and craving symptoms. Addictive behaviors. 2011;36(5):555-9.

119.     Pratiti R, Mukherjee D. Epidemiology and adverse consequences of hookah/Waterpipe use: A systematic review. Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents). 2019;17(2):82-93.

120.     Farrell M, Howes S, Taylor C, Lewis G, Jenkins R, Bebbington P, et al. Substance misuse and psychiatric comorbidity: an overview of the OPCS National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Addictive Behaviors. 1998;23(6):909-18.

121.     Lawrence D, Mitrou F, Zubrick SR. Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States. BMC public health. 2009;9(1):285.

122.     Martini S, Wagner FA, Anthony JC. The association of tobacco smoking and depression in adolescence: evidence from the United States. Substance Use & Misuse. 2002;37(14):1853-67.

123.     Klungsøyr O, Nygård JF, Sørensen T, Sandanger I. Cigarette smoking and incidence of first depressive episode: an 11-year, population-based follow-up study. American journal of epidemiology. 2006;163(5):421-32.

124.     Johnson JG, Cohen P, Pine DS, Klein DF, Kasen S, Brook JS. Association between cigarette smoking and anxiety disorders during adolescence and early adulthood. Jama. 2000;284(18):2348-51.

125.     Fluharty M, Taylor AE, Grabski M, Munafò MR. The association of cigarette smoking with depression and anxiety: a systematic review. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2016;19(1):3-13.

126.     McManus S, Meltzer H, Campion J. Cigarette smoking and mental health in England: Data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. London: National Centre for Social Research. 2010.

127.     De Leon J, Diaz FJ. A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviors. Schizophrenia research. 2005;76(2-3):135-57.

128.     Grant BF, Hasin DS, Chou SP, Stinson FS, Dawson DA. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders in the united states: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and relatedconditions. Archives of general psychiatry. 2004;61(11):1107-15.

129.     Taylor G, McNeill A, Girling A, Farley A, Lindson-Hawley N, Aveyard P. Change in mental health after smoking cessation: systematic review and meta-analysis. Bmj. 2014;348:g1151.

130.     Munafo MR, Araya R. Cigarette smoking and depression: a question of causation. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2010;196(6):425-6.

131.     Morris DS, Fiala SC. Flavoured, non-cigarette tobacco for sale in the USA: an inventory analysis of Internet retailers. Tobacco control. 2015;24(1):101-2.

132.     Szyfter A, Giefing M. Is waterpipe smoking a safe alterative for cigarette smoking? Przeglad lekarski. 2012;69(10):1090-4.

133.     Eissenberg T, Shihadeh A. Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: direct comparison of toxicant exposure. American journal of preventive medicine. 2009;37(6):518-23.

134.     Martinasek MP, McDermott RJ, Martini L. Waterpipe (hookah) tobacco smoking among youth. Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care. 2011;41(2):34-57.

135.     Amin TT, Amr MAM, Zaza BO, Kaliyadan F. Predictors of waterpipe smoking among secondary school adolescents in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. International journal of behavioral medicine. 2012;19(3):324-35.

136.     Ambrose BK, Day HR, Rostron B, Conway KP, Borek N, Hyland A, et al. Flavored tobacco product use among US youth aged 12-17 years, 2013-2014. Jama. 2015;314(17):1871-3.

137.     Hessami Z, Masjedi M, Sharifi H, Emami H, Kazempour M, Jamaati H. Characteristics of Iranian hookah smokers aged 15 and above: a primary report. Health Scope. 2016;5(4).

138.     Villanti AC, Mowery PD, Delnevo CD, Niaura RS, Abrams DB, Giovino GA. Changes in the prevalence and correlates of menthol cigarette use in the USA, 2004–2014. Tobacco control. 2016;25(Suppl 2):ii14-ii20.

139.     Nakhostin-Roohi B. The Comparison of Hookah Smoking Prevalence in Medical Students between 2009 and 2014. Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health. 2016;13(2).

140.     Zatoński M, Herbeć A, Zatoński W, Przewoźniak K, Janik-Koncewicz K, Mons U, et al. Characterising smokers of menthol and flavoured cigarettes, their attitudes towards tobacco regulation, and the anticipated impact of the Tobacco Products Directive on their smoking and quitting behaviours: The EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys. Tobacco induced diseases. 2018;16.

141.     Berg CJ. Preferred flavors and reasons for e-cigarette use and discontinued use among never, current, and former smokers. International journal of public health. 2016;61(2):225-36.

142.     Courtemanche CJ, Palmer MK, Pesko MF. Influence of the flavored cigarette ban on adolescent tobacco use. American journal of preventive medicine. 2017;52(5):e139-e46.

143.     Williams K, Umberson D. Marital status, marital transitions, and health: A gendered life course perspective. Journal of Health and Social behavior. 2004;45(1):81-98.

144.     Umberson D. Gender, marital status and the social control of health behavior. Social science & medicine. 1992;34(8):907-17.

145.     Manzoli L, Villari P, Pirone GM, Boccia A. Marital status and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Social science & medicine. 2007;64(1):77-94.

146.     Reczek C. The promotion of unhealthy habits in gay, lesbian, and straight intimate partnerships. Social Science & Medicine. 2012;75(6):1114-21.

147.     Daly KA, Lund EM, Harty KC, Ersted SA. Factors associated with late smoking initiation in Minnesota women. American Journal of Public Health. 1993;83(9):1333-5.

148.     Wellman RJ, Dugas EN, Dutczak H, O’Loughlin EK, Datta GD, Lauzon B, et al. Predictors of the onset of cigarette smoking: a systematic review of longitudinal population-based studies in youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2016;51(5):767-78.

149.     Thomas RE, Baker PR, Thomas BC, Lorenzetti DL. Family‐based programmes for preventing smoking by children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015(2).

150.     Cummings EM, Davies PT. Effects of marital conflict on children: Recent advances and emerging themes in process‐oriented research. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry. 2002;43(1):31-63.

151.     Rhoades KA. Children’s responses to interparental conflict: A meta‐analysis of their associations with child adjustment. Child development. 2008;79(6):1942-56.

152.     Koval JJ, Pederson LL, Mills CA, McGrady GA, Carvajal SC. Models of the relationship of stress, depression, and other psychosocial factors to smoking behavior: a comparison of a cohort of students in grades 6 and 8. Preventive Medicine. 2000;30(6):463-77.

153.     O'Loughlin J, Karp I, Koulis T, Paradis G, DiFranza J. Determinants of first puff and daily cigarette smoking in adolescents. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2009;170(5):585-97.

154.     Lam T, Stewart SM, Ho SY, Lai MK, Mak KH, Chau KV, et al. Depressive symptoms and smoking among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Addiction. 2005;100(7):1003-11.

155.     Luk TT, Wang MP, Leung LT, Wu Y, Chen J, Lam TH, et al. Associations of perceived interparental relationship, family harmony and family happiness with smoking intention in never-smoking Chinese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open. 2017;7(10):e017523.

156.     Choi WS, Ahluwalia JS, Harris KJ, Okuyemi K. Progression to established smoking: the influence of tobacco marketing. American journal of preventive medicine. 2002;22(4):228-33.

157.     Kristjansson AL, Sigfusdottir ID, Allegrante JP, Helgason AR. Parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use: assessing the importance of family conflict. Acta Paediatrica. 2009;98(3):537-42.

158.     Umberson D. Family status and health behaviors: Social control as a dimension of social integration. Journal of health and social behavior. 1987:306-19.

159.     Robles TF, Kiecolt-Glaser JK. The physiology of marriage: Pathways to health. Physiology & behavior. 2003;79(3):409-16.

160.     Margolis R, Wright L. Better off alone than with a smoker: the influence of partner’s smoking behavior in later life. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 2016;71(4):687-97.

161.     Falba TA, Sindelar JL. Spousal concordance in health behavior change. Health services research. 2008;43(1p1):96-116.

162.     Castañeda G, Barnett TE, Soule EK, Young ME. Hookah smoking behavior initiation in the context of Millennials. Public Health. 2016;137:124-30.

163.     Nakkash R, Khalil J. Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Tobacco control. 2010;19(3):235-9.

164.     Dadipoor S, Kok G, Aghamolaei T, Heyrani A, Ghaffari M, Ghanbarnezhad A. Factors associated with hookah smoking among women: a systematic review. Tobacco Prev Cessation. 2019;5:26.

165.     Majdzadeh S, Zamani G, Kazemi S. QualiTative survey on the factors affecting tendency to hookah usage in Hormozgan province and appropriate campaign methods against it. Hakim. 2002;5(3):183-7.

166.     Maziak W. The global epidemic of waterpipe smoking. Addictive behaviors. 2011;36(1-2):1-5.

167.     Takano Y, Sogon S. Are Japanese more collectivistic than Americans? Examining conformity in in-groups and the reference-group effect. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2008;39(3):237-50.

168.     Jamison W, editor Risk as a social phenomenon. Forum of nutrition; 2003.

169.     Sighaldeh SS, Baheiraei A, Dehghan S, Charkazi A. Persistent use of hookah smoking among Iranian women: A qualitative study. Tobacco Prevention & Cessation. 2018;4.

170.     Mobaraki A, Soderfeldt B. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health. 2010.

171.     Cerrato J, Cifre E. Gender inequality in household chores and work-family conflict. Frontiers in psychology. 2018;9:1330.

172.     Feinstein S, Feinstein R, Sabrow S. Gender inequality in the division of household labour in Tanzania. African Sociological Review/Revue Africaine de Sociologie. 2010;14(2):98-109.

173.     Sales EC, Santana VS. Depressive and anxiety symptoms among housemaids. American journal of industrial medicine. 2003;44(6):685-91.

174.     Graham H. Women's smoking and family health. Social Science & Medicine. 1987;25(1):47-56.

175.     Eliot RE. " Destructive but sweet": cigarette smoking among women 1890-1990: University of Glasgow; 2001.

176.     Flandorfer P, Wegner C, Buber I. Gender roles and smoking behaviour. Vienna Institute of Demography Working Papers, 2010.

177.     Gharagyozyan A. Qualitative study to explore reasons for smoking among teenage girls in Yerevan 2014.

178.     Dunlop S, Freeman B, Jones SC. Marketing to youth in the digital age: The promotion of unhealthy products and health promoting behaviours on social media. Media and Communication. 2016;4(3):35-49.

179.     Rijhwani K, Hashmi S, Mohanty VR, Balappanavar AY, Kapoor S. Hookah products and online retail marketing strategies in India: A content analysis. Indian journal of cancer. 2018;55(3):261.

180.     Yusof NA, Zin FM, Idris NS, Mohammad R. Alternative Tobacco Products Use among Late Adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. Korean journal of family medicine. 2019;40(4):254.

181.     Jawad M, Bakir A, Ali M, Grant A. Impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on waterpipe smoking attitudes: a qualitative analysis among regular users in London. BioMed research international. 2015;2015.

182.     Stepanov I, Soeteman-Hernandez L, Talhout R, editors. Research and monitoring the evolution of new tobacco products, including products with potentially “modified risks”. Background Paper for 7th Meeting of WHO TobReg; 2013.

183.     Organization WH. Work in progress in relation to Articles 9 and 10 of the WHO FCTC. World Health Organization http://apps who int/gb/fctc/PDF/cop6/FCTC_COP6_14-en pdf Accessed. 2018;21.

184.     Dube Sr Ak, Malarcher A, Carabollo R. Office on smoking and health, national center for chronic disease prevention and health promotion.: Cigarette smoking among adults and trends in smoking cessation–United States 2008. MMWR Weekly. 2009;58:1227-32.

185.     Mays D, Hawkins KB, Bredfeldt C, Wolf H, Tercyak KP. The effects of framed messages for engaging adolescents with online smoking prevention interventions. Translational behavioral medicine. 2017;7(2):196-203.

186.     Dehdari T, Jafari A, Joveyni H. Students’ perspectives in Tehran University of Medical Sciences about factors affecting smoking hookah. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012;19(95):17-24.

187.     Wallace RB, Stratton K, Bonnie RJ. Ending the tobacco problem: a blueprint for the nation: National Academies Press; 2007.

188.     Freedman KS, Nelson NM, Feldman LL. Smoking initiation among young adults in the United States and Canada, 1998-2010: a systematic review. Preventing chronic disease. 2012;9.

189.     Karimy M, Niknami S, Heidarnia A, Hajizadeh I. Assessment of knowledge, health belief and patterns of cigarette smoking among adolescents. Journal of Fasa University of Medical Sciences. 2011;1(3):142-8.

190.     Heydari G, Tafti SF, Telischi F, Joossens L, Hosseini M, Masjedi M, et al. Prevalence of smuggled and foreign cigarette use in Tehran, 2009. Tobacco control. 2010;19(5):380-2.

191.     Cantrell J, Pearson JL, Anesetti-Rothermel A, Xiao H, Kirchner TR, Vallone D. Tobacco retail outlet density and young adult tobacco initiation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2015;18(2):130-7.

192.     Organization WH. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2013: enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: World Health Organization; 2013.

193.     Adams ML, Jason LA, Pokorny S, Hunt Y. Exploration of the link between tobacco retailers in school neighborhoods and student smoking. Journal of School Health. 2013;83(2):112-8.

194.     Cantrell J, Anesetti‐Rothermel A, Pearson JL, Xiao H, Vallone D, Kirchner TR. The impact of the tobacco retail outlet environment on adult cessation and differences by neighborhood poverty. Addiction. 2015;110(1):152-61.

195.     Wagoner KG, Sutfin EL, Song EY, King JL, Egan KL, Reboussin B, et al. Trends in point-of-sale tobacco marketing around college campuses: Opportunities for enhanced tobacco control efforts. Journal of American College Health. 2018;66(3):145-54.

196.     Association AH. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. http://www tobaccofreekids org/reports/settlements/2004/fullreport pdf. 2003.

197.     Aljarrah K, Ababneh ZQ, Al-Delaimy WK. Perceptions of hookah smoking harmfulness: predictors and characteristics among current hookah users. Tobacco induced diseases. 2009;5(1):16.

198.     Dewhirst T. POP goes the power wall? Taking aim at tobacco promotional strategies utilised at retail. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd; 2004.

199.     Roohafza H, Sadeghi M, Shahnam M, Bahonar A, Sarafzadegan N. Perceived factors related to cigarette and waterpipe (ghelyan) initiation and maintenance in university students of Iran. International journal of public health. 2011;56(2):175-80.

200.     Kadhum M, Sweidan A, Jaffery AE, Al-Saadi A, Madden B. A review of the health effects of smoking shisha. Clinical Medicine. 2015;15(3):263.

201.     Ross H, Vellios N, Smith KC, Ferguson J, Cohen JE. A closer look at ‘Cheap White’cigarettes. Tobacco control. 2016;25(5):527-31.

202.     A Gorji H, Mohammadi T, Hosseini L. Cigarette price and smoking rate in 1983-2005 period in Iran. Journal of Health Administration. 2010;12(38):31-6.

203.     Ross H, Chaloupka FJ. The effect of cigarette prices on youth smoking. Health economics. 2003;12(3):217-30.

204.     Organization WH. The global tobacco crisis: Tobacco—global agent of death. Who report on the global tobacco epidemic. 2008.

205.     Singh AR, Singh SA. Diseases of poverty and lifestyle, well-being and human development. Mens sana monographs. 2008;6(1):187.

206.     Aslam HM, Saleem S, German S, Qureshi WA. Harmful effects of shisha: literature review. International archives of medicine. 2014;7(1):16.

207.     Lushniak BD, Samet JM, Pechacek TF, Norman LA, Taylor PA. The Health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress: A report of the Surgeon General. 2014.

208.     Nakkash RT, Khalil J, Afifi RA. The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: a qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers. BMC public health. 2011;11(1):315.

209.     Jawad M, McEwen A, McNeill A, Shahab L. To what extent should waterpipe tobacco smoking become a public health priority? Addiction. 2013;108(11):1873-84.

210.     Momenabadi V, Iranpour A, Khanjani N, Mohseni M. Effect of educational intervention on water pipe behaviour of students in dormitories of Kerman Medical University: BASNEF Model. Journal of Health Promotion Management. 2015;4(3):12-22.

211.     Kassem NO, Jackson SR, Boman-Davis M, Kassem NO, Liles S, Daffa RM, et al. Hookah smoking and facilitators/barriers to lounge use among students at a US university. American journal of health behavior. 2015;39(6):832-48.

212.     Zia As, Meymandi M, Zarezadeh A. The prevalence and motivation of cigarette smoking among Kerman high school students. 2007.

213.     Organization WH. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic 2019: Offer help to quit tobacco use. 2019.

214.     Bahelah R. Waterpipe tobacco labeling and packaging and World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC): a call for action. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2014;109(2):333.

215.     Jawad M, El Kadi L, Mugharbil S, Nakkash R. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis. Tobacco control. 2015;24(Suppl 1):i60-i5.

216.     Alimohammadi M, Jafari-Mansoorian H, Hashemi SY, Momenabadi V, Ghasemi SM, Karimyan K. Review on the Implementation of the Islamic Republic of Iran about Tobacco Control, Based on MPOWER, in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control by the World Health Organization. Addiction & health. 2017;9(3):183.

217.     Banks C, Rawaf S, Hassounah S. Factors influencing the tobacco control policy process in Egypt and Iran: a scoping review. Global health research and policy. 2017;2(1):19.

218.     Sadiq MA, Parekh MA, Zubairi ABS, Khan J, Frossard PM. Cross-sectional study identifying forms of tobacco used by Shisha smokers in Pakistan. JPMA The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2012;62(2):192.

219.     Israel E, El-Setouhy M, Gadalla S, Aoun el SA MN, Mohamed M. Water pipe (Sisha) smoking in cafes in Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2003;33(3 Suppl):1073-85.

220.     Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV. Shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2012;13(11):5627-32.

221.     Hakim F, Hellou E, Goldbart A, Katz R, Bentur Y, Bentur L. The acute effects of water-pipe smoking on the cardiorespiratory system. Chest. 2011;139(4):775-81.

222.     Blachman-Braun R, Del Mazo-Rodríguez RL, López-Sámano G, Buendía-Roldán I. Hookah, is it really harmless? Respiratory medicine. 2014;108(5):661-7.

223.     Kadhum M, Jaffery A, Haq A, Bacon J, Madden B. Measuring the acute cardiovascular effects of shisha smoking: a cross-sectional study. JRSM open. 2014;5(6):2054270414531127.

224.     Primack BA, Sidani J, Agarwal AA, Shadel WG, Donny EC, Eissenberg TE. Prevalence of and associations with waterpipe tobacco smoking among US university students. Annals of behavioral medicine. 2008;36(1):81-6.

225.     Mahoozi S, Heidari M, Shahbazi S, Naseh L. Influence of training about carcinogenic effects of Hookah smoking on the awareness, attitude, and performance of women. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2017;18(7):1967.

226.     Tao S, Croucher R, Pau A. Impact of the curriculum on Chinese dental students' tobacco control attitudes and beliefs: a case study in Harbin, China. International dental journal. 2008;58(4):181-6.

227.     Haroon M, Munir A, Mahmud W, Hyder O. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of water-pipe smoking among medical students in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2014;64(2):155-8.

228.     Cobb C, Ward KD, Maziak W, Shihadeh AL, Eissenberg T. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: an emerging health crisis in the United States. American journal of health behavior. 2010;34(3):275-85.

229.     Smith-Simone SY, Curbow BA, Stillman FA. Differing psychosocial risk profiles of college freshmen waterpipe, cigar, and cigarette smokers. Addictive behaviors. 2008;33(12):1619-24.

230.     Von Elm E, Altman D, Egger M, Pocock S, Gøtzsche P, Vandenbroucke J. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies [published correction appears in Ann Intern Med. 2008; 148: 168]. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(8):573-7.

231.     Sohrabzadeh M, Parnian L. Qualitative studies smoking hookah among girls and young women (case study: Shiraz City). 2015.