A Comparative Study on Excito-Repellency Effects of Permethrin, Deltamethrin and Etofenprox Treated Bed Nets against Anopheles stephensi Liston, 1901 (Diptera: Culicidae)
Background: Malaria is the most important vector-borne disease in many tropical countries all over the world. Because of the widespread use of pyrethroid insecticide treated mosquito nets in the world, the effects of excito-repellency (ER) phenomenon of pyrethroids against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi were studied.
Methods: The ER phenomenon of three concentrations of two synthetic pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) as well as etofenprox was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi under laboratory conditions. Female 5-7 day unfed mosquitoes were exposed to animal bait in holder and the animal’s back and head were covered with impregnated bed net in -ER test chamber.
Results: Deltamethrin was more effective compared to other insecticides in killing the mosquitoes. The mean of entry to exit trap showed significant differences in all concentrations of insecticides (P<0.05).
Conclusion: This study showed that ER phenomenon of insecticides should be noticed in vector control programs. The ranked data indicated the relative potency of both pyrethroids and etofenprox. Deltamethrin repels the female mosquitoes more than other insecticides tested.
WHO. World malaria report 2011. Available from: http://
Alipour H, Ladonni H, Abaie MR, Moemenbellah-
Fard MD, Fakoorziba MR. Laboratory efficacy
tests of pyrethroid treated bednets on the malaria
vectormosquito, Anopheles stephensi, in a baited excitorepellency
chamber. Pak J Biol Sci. 2006;9(10):1877-83.
Noosidum A, Prabaripai A, Chareonviriyaphap T,
Chandrapatya A. Excito-repellency properties of
essential oils from Melaleuca leucadendron L, Litsea
cubeba (Lour) Persoon and Litsea salicifolia (Nees)
on Aedes aegypti (L) mosquitoes. J Vector Ecol. 2008
Rajaiefard AR, Nikbakhtzadeh MR, Alipour H. Malaria
transmission and its vector ecology in the heartland of
the Iranian Petrochemical Industry. J Exp Zool India.
Lindsay SW, Adiamah JH, Miller JE, Armstrong JRM.
Pyrethroid treated bednet effects on mosquitoes of the
Anopheles gambiae complex in the Gambia. Med Vet
Entomol. 1991;5(4):477-83. PubMed PMID: 1773125.
Thomson MC, Adiamah JH, Connor SJ, Jawara M,
Bennett S, D’Alessandro U, et al. Entomological
evaluation of the Gambian national impregnated
bed net programme Ann. Trop Med Parasitol.
Lindsay SW, Adiamah JH, Armstrong JRM. The effect
of permethrin-impregnated bed nets on house entry by
mosquitoes in the Gambia. Bull Entomol Res. 1992;
Mbogo CNM, Baya NM, Ofulla AVO, Githure JI,
Snow RW. The impact of permethrin-impregnated
bednets on malaria vectors of the Kenyan coast. Med
Vet Entomol. 1996;10(3):251-9.
Magbity EB, Marbiah NT, Maude G, Curtis CF,
Bradley DJ, et al. Effects of community-wide use of
lambdacyhalothrin -impregnated bednets on malaria
vectors in rural Sierra Leone. Med Vet Entomol.
Asidi A, N’Guessan R, Akogbeto M, Curtis C,
Rowland M. Loss of household protection from
use of insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroidresistant
mosquitoes, Benin. Emerg Infect Dis.
Jul;18(7):1101-6. Available from: http://dx.doi.
Adams KJ, Chavasse DC, Mount DL, Carneiro
IA, Curtis CF. Comparative insecticidal power
of three pyrethroids on netting. Med Vet Entomol.
;16(1):106-8. PubMed PMID: 11963974.
Sharma SK, Upadhyay AK, Haque MA, Padhan K,
Tyagi PK. Village-scale evaluation of mosquito nets
treated with a tablet formulation of deltamethrin against
malaria vectors. Med Vet Entomol. 2005;19(3):286-92.
PubMed PMID: 16134977.
Vatandoost H, Mashayekhi M, Abaie MR, Aflatoonian
MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Sharifi I. Monitoring of
insecticides resistance in main malaria vectors in a
malarious area of Kahnooj district, Kerman province,
southeastern of Iran. J Vect Borne Dis. 2005;42(3):100-
PubMed PMID: 16294808.
Ilboudo-Sanogo E, Cuzin-Ouattara N, Diallo DA,
Cousens SN, Esposito F, Habluetzel A, et al. Insecticidetreated
materials, mosquito adaptation and mass effect:
Entomological observations after five years of vector
control in Burkina Faso. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg.
Léia D, Claysson M, Holbiano S, Christopher J and
Cláudio TP. Excito-repellency effect of deltamethrin
on triatomines under laboratory conditions. Rev Soc
Bras Med Trop. 2000;33(3):247-52.
Maia MF, Moore SJ. Plant-based insect repellents:
a review of their efficacy, development and testing.
Malar J. 2011;10(1):11.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
pISSN: 2345-2218 eISSN: 2345-3893