Both Low and Upper Normal Levels of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Relates to Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Diseases
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in a wide range
of pathological situations including cardiovascular diseases.
This study aimed to investigate the association between serum
25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and risk factors of metabolic
syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on 169
adults (88 males, 81 females) aged 19-52 years living in Shiraz,
Iran. Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were
measured using standard methods. Blood samples were collected
in fasting state for determination of blood glucose, lipids, and
25(OH)D. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance
and linear regression using SPSS software.
Results: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were considerably
higher in males. One third of females had vitamin D deficiency
(25(OH)D <10 ng/ml) while one third of males exhibited
25(OH)D levels >50 ng/ml. In males, systolic and diastolic
blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome score
increased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
decreased across tertiles of serum 25(OH)D. On the contrary,
in females body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome
score decreased and HDL cholesterol increased across tertiles
of 25(OH)D. Linear regression, after controlling for confounding
factors, showed that diastolic blood pressure (B=0.07; 95% CI:
0.02, 0.11; P=0.006), triglycerides (B=0.54; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.85;
P=0.001), and metabolic syndrome score (B=0.01; 95% CI: 0.001,
0.01; P=0.02) positively and HDL cholesterol (B=-0.05; 95% CI:
-0.09, -0.01; P=0.02) inversely associated with tertiles of 25(OH)
D concentrations in males. In contrast, BMI (B=-0.06; 95% CI:
-0.11, -0.02; P=0.01), waist circumference (B= -0.12; 95% CI:-
0.23, -0.01; p=0.04), and metabolic syndrome score (B=-0.02;
95% CI:-0.03, -0.01; P=0.01) were inversely and HDL-C (B=0.16;
95% CI: 0.02, 0.31; P=0.02) positively associated with 25(OH)
D tertiles in females.
Conclusion: The results suggest that both low and upper
normal levels of 25(OH)D are associated with increased risk of
cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome.
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