Analysis of body postures for preventing musculoskeletal disorders among tractor drivers in Iran
Background: Due to the high cost of advanced tractors in developing countries, their use with lower cost and technology has been further considered. Consequently, many of these machines in terms of ergonomics are in poor condition and cause musculoskeletal problems in the drivers. This study aimed to identify harmful postures causing musculoskeletal disorders in the tractor drivers in Iran.
Methods: The study was conducted in March 2018 among farmers in Golestan province. The tasks of tractor drivers are divided into three stages consisting of getting on, steering tractor, and getting off. Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) method was used to assess the body postures. In REBA, different postures of the body regions such as the neck, wrist, hands and legs were assessed and finally the level of risk was determined. Then, the levels of ergonomic interventions were suggested based on the risk level.
Results: Based on the REBA analysis, most of the tasks performed by the tractor drivers had medium risk and they need prompt investigation and change. For the task of getting on and getting off the tractor, the highest scores were assigned to the arms, legs and trunk. For the task of steering tractor, the highest postural scores were related to the wrists, trunk and legs.
Conclusion: Ergonomic and posture conditions of Iranian tractors are not suitable. Therefore, it is necessary to implement ergonomic interventions to reduce the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders.
Taghavi SM, Mokarami H, Ahmadi O, Stallones L, Abbaspour A, Marioryad H. Risk Factors for Developing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders during Dairy Farming. The international journal of occupational and environmental medicine. 2017;8:39-45.
Parno A, Sayehmiri K, mokarami H, parno M, Azrah K, Ebrahimi M H et al . The Prevalence of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Lower Limbs among Iranian Workers: A Meta-Analysis Study. Iran Occupational Health 2016;13:49-59.
Choobineh A, Tabatabaei SH, Mokhtarzadeh A, Salehi M. Musculoskeletal problems among workers of an Iranian rubber factory. Journal Occupational Health. 2007 ;49(5):418-23.
Fathallah FA. Musculoskeletal disorders in labor-intensive agriculture. Applied ergonomics 2010;41:738-43.
Kolstrup CL. Work-related musculoskeletal discomfort of dairy farmers and employed workers. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology 2012;7:1.
Kolstrup CL, Hultgren J. Perceived physical and psychosocial exposure and health symptoms of dairy farm staff and possible associations with dairy cow health. Journal of agricultural safety and health 2011;17:111-25.
Davis KG, Kotowski SE. Understanding the ergonomic risk for musculoskeletal disorders in the United States agricultural sector. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 2007;50:501-11.
Osborne A1, Blake C, McNamara J, Meredith D, Phelan J, Cunningham C. Musculoskeletal disorders among Irish farmers. Occupational medicine 2010: 60(8):598-603.
Douphrate DI, Nonnenmann MW, Rosecrance JC. Ergonomics in industrialized dairy operations. Journal of agromedicine 2009;14:406-12.
Nevala-Puranen N. Reduction of farmers' postural load during occupationally oriented medical rehabilitation. Applied ergonomics 1995;26:411-5.
Mehta C, Tewari V. Seating discomfort for tractor operators–a critical review. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 2000;25:661-74.
Karhu O, Kansi P, Kuorinka I. Correcting working postures in industry: a practical method for analysis. Applied ergonomics 1977;8:199-201.
McAtamney L, Corlett EN. RULA: a survey method for the investigation of work-related upper limb disorders. Applied ergonomics 1993;24:91-9.
Hignett S, McAtamney L. Rapid entire body assessment (REBA). Applied ergonomics 2000;31:201-5.
David G. Ergonomic methods for assessing exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Occupational medicine 2005;55:190-9.
Boshuizen HC, Bongers PM, Hulshof CT. Self-reported back pain in fork-lift truck and freight-container tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration. Spine 1992;17:59-65.
Torén A, Öberg K, Lembke B, et al. Tractor-driving hours and their relation to self-reported low-back and hip symptoms. Applied ergonomics 2002;33:139-46.
Gomez M, Hwang S, Stark A, et al. An analysis of self–reported joint pain among New York farmers. Journal of agricultural safety and health 2003;9:143.
Boshuizen HC, Bongers PM, Hulshof CT. Self-reported back pain in tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration. International archives of occupational and environmental health 1990;62:109-15.
Patel R, Kumar A, Mohan D. Development of an ergonomic evaluation facility for Indian tractors. Applied ergonomics 2000;31:311-6.
Kumar A, Bhaskar G, Singh J. Assessment of controls layout of Indian tractors. Applied ergonomics 2009;40:91-102.
joneidi A, Sadeghi F. A survey on static anthropometric dimensions in 20-60year workers of six Iranian nations. Journal of Health Administration 2008;11:11-24.
Mehta C, Tiwari P, Rokade S, et al. Leg strength of Indian operators in the operation of tractor pedals. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 2007;37:283-9.
Singh S, Arora R. Ergonomic intervention for preventing musculoskeletal disorders among farm women. J. Agric. Sci 2010;1:61-71.
Engberg L. Women and agricultural work. Occupational medicine (Philadelphia, Pa.) 1993;8:869-82.
Walker‐Bone K, Palmer K. Musculoskeletal disorders in farmers and farm workers. Occupational medicine 2002;52:441-50.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
pISSN: 2345-2218 eISSN: 2345-3893