Assessment of Groundwater Nitrate Pollution and Determination of Groundwater Protection Zones Using DRASTIC and Composite DRASTIC (CD) Models: The Case of Shiraz Unconfined Aquifer

Mohammad Ali Baghapour, Nasser Talebbeydokhti, Hamidreza Tabatabee, Amir Fadaei Nobandegani

Abstract


Background: Groundwater nitrate pollution is an important environmental problem in water resources management. In this regard, specific measures aiming at prevention of water pollution will be helpful to managers and decision-makers. Identification of aquifers’ vulnerable areas and determination of groundwater protection zones using most widely used models, such as DRASTIC and CD, are one of the most useful approaches in water resources’ hygiene. Objective: The present study aimed to assess the vulnerability of Shiraz plain’s unconfined aquifer using the above-mentioned models. Methods: The main hydro-geologic factors affecting the transmission of pollution, including depth to water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of the vadose zone, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and land use parameters were rated, weighted, and integrated using GIS 9.3. Finally, the maps of Shiraz plain’s unconfined aquifer vulnerability were prepared. Results: The vulnerability maps based on these two indexes showed very similar results, identifying the southeastern part of the aquifer, around Maharlu Lake, as the vulnerable zone. The observed nitrate concentrations from the wells in the underlying aquifer were in accordance with these findings. The results of sensitivity analyses indicated the depth parameter as the most effective parameter in vulnerability assessment of Shiraz plain. Conclusion: As Shiraz plain has been covered with fine-grained sediments, except for some central and south-east regions which have moderate vulnerability and high nitrate concentration, its vulnerability is low. Given the intensive agricultural activities and also the rise in groundwater level in southeastern regions, more attention should be paid to these areas.


Keywords


Vulnerability; Shiraz aquifer; DRASTIC; CD index; Nitrate

Full Text:

PDF

References


Kumar SK, Rammohan V, Sahayam JD, Jeevanandam

M. Assessment of ground water quality and

hydrogeochemistry of Manimuktha River basin, Tamil

Nadu, India. Environ Monit Assess 2009; 159(1-4):

-51.

Fazeli M, Kalantari N, Rahimi MH, Khoobyari A.

Temporal and spatial distribution of nitrate in the Zydun

plain,s groundwater resources. Water Eng 2011; 4(8):

-51.

Tilahun K, Merkel BJ. Assessment of groundwater

vulnerability to pollution in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia using

DRASTIC. Environ. Earth Sci 2010; 59(7): 1485-96.

Sinan M, Razack M. An extension to the DRASTIC

model to assess groundwater vulnerability to pollution:

application to the Haouz aquifer of Marrakech

(Morocco). Environ Geol 2009; 57(2): 349-63.

Hailin Y, Ligang X, Chang Y, Jiaxing X. evaluation of

groundwater vulnerability with improved DRASTIC

method. Procedia Environ. Sci 2011; 10: 2690-5.

Rahman A. A GIS based DRASTIC model for assessing

groundwater vulnerability in shallow aquifer in

Aligarh, India. Appl. Geogr 2008; 28(1): 32-53.

Leone A, Ripa M.N, Uricchio V, Deak J, Vargay

Z. Vulnerability and risk evaluation of agricultural

nitrogen pollution for Hungary’s main aquifer using

DRASTIC and GLEAMS models. J Environ Manage

; 90(10): 2969-78.

Nel J, Xu Y, Batelaan O, Brendonck L. Benefit and

implementation of groundwater protection zoning

in South Africa. Water Resour Manage 2009; 23:

-911.

Saidi S, Bouri S, Ben Dhia H. Groundwater vulnerability

and risk mapping of the Hajeb-jelma aquifer (Central

Tunisia) using a GIS-based DRASTIC model. Environ

Earth Sci 2010; 59: 1579-88.

Qian H, Li P, Howard K.W.F, Yang C, Zhang X.Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the

Yinchuan Plain, Northwest China using OREADIC.

Environ Monit Assess 2012; 184: 3613-28.

Babiker IS, Mohamed MAA, Hiyama T, Kato K. A

GIS-based DRASTIC model for assessing aquifer

vulnerability in Kakamigahara Heights, Gifu

Prefecture, central Japan. Sci. Total Environ 2005;

(1): 127-40.

Martínez-Bastida JJ, Arauzo M, Valladolid M. Intrinsic

and specific vulnerability of groundwater in central

Spain: the risk of nitrate pollution. Hydrogeol J 2010;

(3): 681-98.

Sener E, Sener S, Davraz A. Assessment of aquifer

vulnerability based on GIS and DRASTIC methods:

a case study of the Senirkent-Uluborlu Basin (Isparta,

Turkey). Hydrogeol J 2009; 17(8): 2023-35.

Pathak DR, Hiratsuka A, Awata I, Chen L. Groundwater

vulnerability assessment in shallow aquifer of

Kathmandu Valley using GIS-based DRASTIC model.

Environ Geol 2009; 57(7): 1569-78.

Al Hallaq AH, Elaish BSA. Assessment of aquifer

vulnerability to contamination in Khanyounis

Governorate, Gaza Strip-Palestine, using the DRASTIC

model within GIS environment. Arab. J Geosci 2012;

(4): 833-47.

Wen X, Wu J, Si J. A GIS-based DRASTIC model for

assessing shallow groundwater vulnerability in the

Zhangye Basin, northwestern China. Environ Geol

; 57(6): 1435-42.

Lee S. Evaluation of waste disposal site using the

DRASTIC system in Southern Korea. Environ Geol

; 44(6): 654-64.

Jamrah A, Al-Futaisi A, Rajmohan N, Al-Yaroubi S.

Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal

region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS

environment. Environ Monit Assess. 2008; 147(1-3):

-38.

Al-Adamat RAN, Foster IDL, Baban SMG.

Groundwater vulnerability and risk mapping for the

Basaltic aquifer of the Azraq basin of Jordan using

GIS, Remote sensing and DRASTIC. Appl Geogr 2003;

: 303-24.

Chitsazan M, Akhtari Y. A GIS-based DRASTIC

Model for Assessing Aquifer Vulnerability in Kherran

Plain, Khuzestan, Iran. Water Resour Manage 2009;

: 1137-55.

Barber C, Bates LE, Barron R, Allison H. Assessment

of the relative vulnerability of groundwater to pollution:

a review and background paper for the conference

workshop on vulnerability assessment. J Aust Geol

Geophys 1993; 14(2/3): 1147-54.

Merchant JW. GIS-based groundwater pollution hazard

assessment: a critical review of the DRASTIC model.

ISPRS J Photogramm 1994; 60(9): 1117-28.

Napolitano P, Fabbri A. Single-parameter sensitivity

analysis for aquifer vulnerability assessment using

DRASTIC and SINTACS. Proceedings of the Vienna

Conference on HydroGIS 96: Application of geographic

information systems in hydrology and water resources

management IAHS Publ 1996; 235: 559-66.

Brahim FB, Khanfir H, Bouri S. Groundwater

vulnerability and risk mapping of the Northern Sfax

Aquifer, Tunisia. Arab J Sci Eng 2012; 37(5): 1405-21.

Zhou Sh, Wu Y, Wang Zh, Lu L, Wang R. The nitrate

leached below maize root zone is available for deeprooted

wheat in winter wheat-summer maize rotation

in the North China Plain. Environ Pollut 2008; 152:


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

pISSN: 2345-2218          eISSN: 2345-3893