1 UNFPA. Program of Action; adopted at International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 1994.
2 Shoff C, Chen VY-J, Yang T-C. When homogeneity meets heterogeneity: the geographically weighted regression with spatial lag approach to prenatal care 173 Adequate and Ever use of Prenatal Care utilization. Geospatial health. 2014;8(2):557.
3 Alexander GR, Kogan MD, Nabukera S. Racial differences in prenatal care use in the United States: Are disparities decreasing? American Journal of Public Health. 2002;92(12):1970-5.
4 Daniels P, Noe GF, Mayberry R. Barriers to prenatal care among Black women of low socioeconomic status. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2006;30(2):188-98.
5 Heaman MI, Newburn-Cook CV, Green CG, Elliott LJ, Helewa ME. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a comparison of indices. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2008;8(1):1.
6 Health UDo, Services H. Healthy People 2010. Maternal, Infant, and Child Health. Chapter 16. Vol. II, 2nd. 2003.
7 Bernardes ACF, da Silva RA, Coimbra LC, de Britto MTSS, de Sousa Queiroz RC, Batista RFL, et al. Inadequate prenatal care utilization and associated factors in São Luís, Brazil. BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2014;14(1):1.
8 Knight E, Morris M, Heaman M. A descriptive study of women presenting to an obstetric triage unit with no prenatal care. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 2014;36(3):216-22.
9 Heaman MI, Green CG, Newburn-Cook CV, Elliott LJ, Helewa ME. Social inequalities in use of prenatal care in Manitoba. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 2007;29(10):806-16.
10 Bryant AS, Worjoloh A, Caughey AB, Washington AE. Racial/ethnic disparities in obstetric outcomes and care: prevalence and determinants. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2010;202(4):335-43.
11 DiBari JN, Yu SM, Chao SM, Lu MC. Use of postpartum care: predictors and barriers. Journal of pregnancy. 2014 Feb 20;2014.
12 York R, Tulman L, Brown K. Postnatal care in lowincome urban African American women: relationship to level of prenatal care sought. Journal of Perinatology. 2000;20(1).
13 Epstein B, Grant T, Schiff M, Kasehagen L. Does rural residence affect access to prenatal care in Oregon? The Journal of Rural Health. 2009;25(2):150-7.
14 Alexy B, Nichols B, Heverly MA, Garzon L. Prenatal factors and birth outcomes in the public health service: a rural/urban comparison. Research in nursing & health. 1997;20(1):61-70.
15 Harper MA, Byington RP, Espeland MA, Naughton M, Meyer R, Lane K. Pregnancy‐Related Death and Health Care Services. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2003;102(2):273-8.
16 Piran P. Socio-cultural Factors & Reproductive health: The Case of Rural Communities. Center for Women’s Participation Tehran, Iran 2004.
17 World Health Organization. WHO recommended interventions for improving maternal and newborn health: integrated management of pregnancy and childbirth. 2007.
18 Ciceklioglu M, Soyer MT, Öcek ZA. Factors associated with the utilization and content of prenatal care in a western urban district of Turkey. International Journal for Quality in Health Care. 2005;17(6):533-9.
19 Rashidian A, Karimi-Shahanjarini A, Khosravi A, Elahi E, Beheshtian M, Shakibazadeh E, Khabiri R, Arab M, Zakeri MR. Iran’Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS-2010): Study protocol. International journal of preventive medicine. 2014;5(5).
20 Chong S, Nelson M, Byun R, Harris L, Eastwood J, Jalaludin B. Geospatial analyses to identify clusters of adverse antenatal factors for targeted interventions. International journal of health geographics. 2013;12(1):1.
21 Ozor M, Omuemu V. Awareness and Practice of Prenatal and Obstetric Care among Mothers in Ekpoma, Edo-Nigeria. Medicine Journal. 2014;1(2):21.
22 Domingues RMSM, Leal MdC, Hartz ZMdA, Dias MAB, Vettore MV. Access to and utilization of prenatal care services in the Unified Health System of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia. 2013;16(4):953-65.
23 Fekrat M, Kashanian M, Saberi Z. Evaluation of the effective factors in irregular prenatal care. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2004;11(42):605-10.
24 Weeks J. Population: An introduction to concepts and issues: Nelson Education; 2011.
25 Hueston WJ, Geesey ME, Diaz V. Prenatal care initiation among pregnant teens in the United States: an analysis over 25 years. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2008;42(3):243-8.
26 Coimbra L, Figueiredo F, Silva A, Barbieri M, Bettiol H, Caldas A, et al. Inadequate utilization of prenatal care in two Brazilian birth cohorts. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2007;40(9):1195-202.
27 Bassani DG, Surkan PJ, Olinto MTA. Inadequate use of prenatal services among Brazilian women: the role of maternal characteristics. International perspectives on sexual and reproductive health. 2009:15-20.