Document Type: Original Articles


1 Department of Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Yazd, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

3 Department of Marriage and Family Counseling, Azad University, Yazd, Iran


AbstractBackground: Studies have shown that some personalcharacteristics such as perfectionism are associated withcardiovascular diseases. Hence, this study was designed withthe aim of doing a comparative evaluation of perfectionism incoronary heart disease patients and healthy individuals referredto Shahid Faghihi Hospital in Shiraz.Methods: This is a case-control study carried out on 80cardiovascular patients and 80 healthy people who referred toShahid Faghihi Hospital. The sampling was done through theconvenience sampling method. The Frost MultidimensionalPerfectionism Scale (FMPS) was used to collect the information.Besides, t-test was applied to analyze the data in the SPSSsoftware, version 16.Results: The mean ages of the participants in this study were48±12.2 and 34±9.6 in patients and normal subjects, respectively.Negative perfectionism among the people with cardiovasculardisease was higher than the healthy individuals (69.5±12.8 and64±15.5, respectively, with P=0.03) and there was a significantdifference between these two groups. In terms of perfectionismsubscales, there was a significant difference between thetwo groups regarding personal standards (P<0.00), parentalexpectations (P=0.02), and uncertainty in acts (P=0.04).Conclusion: In general, our study results showed that there wasno significant difference between patients with cardiovasculardisease and normal subjects in terms of perfectionism, but asignificant difference was seen between some subscales ofperfectionism in the two groups.


  1. Garnefski N, Kraaij V. Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: A comparative study of five specific samples. Pers Indiv Differ. 2006; 40(8):1659-69.
  2. Harmon-Jones E. Anger and the behavioral approach system. Personality & Individual Differences.2002;32:1247-53.
  3. Shepherd CW, While AE. Cardiac rehabilitation and quality of life:A systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012; 49(6):755-71.
  4. Scheier MF, Bridges MW. Person variables and health: Personality acute predispositions and psychological states as shared determinants for disease. Psychosom Med. 1995; 57(3): 255-268.
  5. Hewitt PL, Flett GL. Perfectionism in the self and social context: Conceptualization, assessment, and association wit psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Socia h Psychology. 1991;60:456-70l
  6. Barnett MD, LedouxT, Garcini LM, Baker J. Type D personality and chronic pain: Construct and concurrent validity of the DS14. J ClinPsychol Med Settings. 2009; 16(2):194-
  7. Flett GL, Hewitt PL, DeRossa T. Dimensions ofperfectionism, psychological adjustment and skills.Personality and Individual Differences. 1996;20:143-50
  8. Espnes GA. The type behavior pattern and coronary heart disease: A critical and personal look at the type Abehaviorpattern at the turn of the century. International Congress
  9. Series. 2002;1241:99-104.
  10. Moghadas, A. R., Borjali, A, Ghodrat, M. (2011). A Comparison between perfectionism and dimensions of anger in patients with coronary heart disease and healthy individuals. Allameh Tabatabaei University. School of psychology and educational science. General psychology. October 2011.
  11. Spiro A, Todao JF, Shen BJ, Niaura R, Ward KD. Effect of negative emotio: on
  12. of Frequency Coronary heart disease, American Journal Cordial. 2003; 15, 901-8.
  13. Azizi, A, Birami, M, Etemadi, N. (2014). A Comparison between type D personality and critical burnout in patients with acute myocardial infarction and heart failure and normal people. Razi journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 21 , No. 126 , November 2014.
  14. Behrooz, B. Khazaei, H. (2013). Personality Dimentions and Methods of problem-solving in patients with coronary heart disease and Chronic backache as well as healthy Individuals. Scientific-research monthly Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 17 (2): 131-141.
  15. Alipoor, A, Hajizadegan, M. (2006). A Comparison between perfectionism in patients with coronary heart disease and healthy individuals. Journal of Psychological Sciences. 2006; 5(19): 16-202.
  16. Blatt SJ, Quinlan DM, Pilkonis PA, Shca MT. Impact of perfectionism and need for approval on the brief treatment of depression. Journal of Consulting &Clinical Psychology. 1995;63:125-32
  17. Scheier MF, Bridges MW. Person variables and health: Personality predispositions and acute psychological states as shared determinants for disease. Psychosom Med. 1995; 57(3): 255-268.