Document Type : Original Articles


1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran;

2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran;

3 Research Center for Social Determinations of Health, School of Health, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran


Background: Heavy metals have destructive and irreversible effects on the human, plants and animals. Some industries in Yazd enter industrial wastewater to municipal wastewater collection system. This can lead to high levels of heavy metals in wastewater and in turn in the wastewater treatment plant effluent. Methods: This study was carried out during four months from December 22, 2009 to May 20, 2010. The experiment was performed on the inflow, outlet of anaerobic pond and first and second facultative ponds of wastewater treatment plant and then transferred to the laboratory and measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: The results of the experiments showed that the average cadmium concentrations in the inflow, anaerobic pond outlet, and first and second facultative pond outlet were 0.0066, 0.0087, 0.0076, and 0.0083μg/l, respectively. The average amounts of chromium in the inflow, anaerobic pond outlet, and first and second facultative pond outlet were 0.0076, 0.0065, 0.0043, and 0.0056 μg/l, respectively. Cadmium concentration in the effluent was higher than standard. Conclusion: The comparison of the obtained data with Iranian standards for wastewater treatment for reuse in irrigation shows that the cadmium concentration exceeded the standard and the chromium concentration was lower than the standard. Therefore, it is not suitable for reuse in the crop farms and aquatic life.


  1. Kayombo S, Mbwette TSA, Katima JHY, Ladegaard N, Jørgensen SE. Waste Stabilization Ponds And Constructed Wetlands Design Manual, UNEP-IETC/ Danida, Dar es Salaam, TZ/Copenhagen, DK, 2004.
  2. Farzadkia M. Application of High Rate Stabilization Ponds for Treatment of Kermanshah City Slaughterhouse. J Water and Wastewater 2004; 15(51): 10-5 [Persian].
  3. Kansal BD. Effects of domestic and industrial effluents on agricultural productivity. In: Dhaliwal, GS, Kansal, BD. [Eds.], Management of Agricultural Pollution in India. Commonwealth publishing Co, New Delhi, India 1994.
  4. United Nations Environment Programme. Water And Wastewater Reuse, United Nations Environment Programme and Global Environment Centre Foundation, .2005
  5. Bansal OP. Heavy metal pollution of soils and plants due to wastewater irrigation. J Environ Health 1998; 40: 51-2.
  6. Aleem A, Isar J, Malik A. Impact of long-term application of industrial wastewater on the emergence of resistance traits in Azotobacter chroococcum isolated from rhizospheric soil. Bioresour Technol 2003; 86: 7-13.
  7. WHO and UNEP. WHO guidelines for the Safe use of wastewater, Excreta and greywater, volume II, Wastewater use in agriculture 2006.
  8. Peavy, Howard S, Donald R Rowe, George Tchobanoglous, Environmental Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 1985.
  9. Muller, Karl Robert, Chemical waste:handling & treatment, Springer-Verlag, 1986.
  10. Skirdmore, JF, Firth IC. Acute Sensitivity of Selected Australian Freshwater Animals to Copper and Zinc. Paper No. 81, Australian Water Resources Council, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra 1983.
  11. Eger P. Wetland Treatment for Trace Metal Removal from Mine Drainage: the Importance of Aerobic and Anarobic. Water Science and Technology 1994; 29(4).
  12. Ehrampoush M H, S hahsavani E , S amaei M R, Ebrahimi A, Ghelman V, Salehi A, et al. Phosphorus Modeling in Yazd Facultative Pond. Tolooe Behdasht 2011; 32: 11-24 [Persian].
  13. Sarabjeet Singh Ahluwalia, Dinesh G. Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresour Technol 2007; 98: 2243-57.
  14. Nahid P, Moslehi P. The study and analysis of heavy metals in drinking water of Tehran at ppb level and methods of their elimination. Journal of Food Science 2008; 5(1).
  15. Juanico M, Ravid R, Azov Y, Teltsch B. Removal of Trace metals from wastewater duringlong-term storage in seasonal reservoirs. Water Air Soil Pollut 1995; 82: 617-33.
  16. Mehdinejad MH, Rajaei Q, Hasanpour M. Heavy Metals Concentration (Zinc, Lead, Chromium and Cadmium) in Water and Sediments of Gorgan Gulf and Estuarine Gorganroud River. Iran Journal of Health System Research 2012; 8(5): 746-56.
  17. Mansouri B, Ebrahimpour M. Heavy metals characteristics of wastewater stabilization ponds. American-Euroasian J Agric Environ Sci 2011; 10(5): 763-8.
  18. Nasr FA, Ashmawy A, Eltaweel G, Elshafai SA. Eltaweel G, Shafal S.A. el-waste stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment and reuse in Egypt. Environmental Sciences Division, Department of Water Pollution Research, National Research Center, El-Behoos Street, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
  19. Drora K, Aharoo A. The fate of heavy metals in wastewater stabilization ponds. Water Res 1987; 21(10): 1189-94.
  20. Ebrahimi A, Ehrampoosh MH, Samaei MR, Shahsavani E, Hosseini E, Hashemi H. Survey on removal efficiency of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in Yazd stabilization pond. Int J Env Health Eng 2015; 4(10): 1-5.
  21. Samaei MR, Hoseinshahi D, Rezaei Y, Maleknia H. Investigation of heavy metal elimination in Waste stabilization ponds in Yazd. National Conference of Iranian researches. Hamadan 2013 [Persian].
  22. Ling TY, Lipan S, Singh H, performance of oxidation ponds in removing heavy metals from pig farm wastewater. Middle-east Journal of Scientific Research 2010; 5(3): 163-9.
  23. Boopathy R. Factors limiting bioremediation technologies. Bioresour Technol 2000; 74: 63-7.
  24. Tingting Dong, Liangrong Yang, Menghao Zhu, Zhini Liu, Xitong Sun, Jiemiao Yu, Huizhou Liu, 2015, Removal of cadmium(II) from wastewater with gas assisted magnetic separation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2015; 280: 426-32.
  25. Vahid Dastjerdi M, Shanbezadeh S, Zahab Saniee A, Rozegar R. [2002]. Investigation of heavy metals concentration in water, soil and plants in Gavkhooni marsh in the years of 2002 and 2006. Journal of Health System Research 2010; 6: 829-36.
  26. Shiklomanov, Igor A, World Water Resources and their Use a joint SHI/UNESCO product[online], UNESCO, International Hydrological Programme, Available from, 1999.
  27. Samaei MR, Ebrahimy A, Ehrampoosh MH, Talebi P, Khalili MH, Morovati R. A Study of the Physical and Chemical Quality of Potable Water in Yazd. Tolooe Behdasht 2007; 2(20): 50-7 [Persian].