Document Type: Original Articles
Assistant Professor of Department of Environment, Islamic Azad University Bandar Abbas Branch, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Master of Science Student, Islamic Azad University Bandar Abbas Branch, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Assistant Professor of Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Background: Given that the share of imported rice from India and Pakistan, the current study was conducted to determine the concentration of lead, arsenic and cadmium in the rice imported from the two mentioned countries in comparison to Iranian rice. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in Bandar Abbas, using a completely randomized block design. Five samples of each brand (India,Pakistan and Iran) and a total of 75 samples were selected. To measure the amount of arsenic in them, atomic spectrum poll and to determine the amount of lead and cadmium, the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer optical-compliant were used. To analyze the data, we applied descriptive statistics and analysis of variance using SPSS software. Results: The mean of Cd, As and Pb were 0.045, 0.057, and 0.022 mg/kg, respectively. There was a significant difference for Cd in the local and imported rice (P=0.002). Difference for As in the local and imported rice was not significant (P=0.218). A statistically significant difference was found between the imported and Iranian rice (P=0.354). There were no significant differences among all the measured heavy metals in the tested samples of India and Pakistan rice, both legally and illegally (P=0.144). Conclusion: It was found that the rice was contaminated with heavy elements; it is recommended that measures should be taken to promote healthy rice production, including periodic monitoring of heavy metals in the water and rice seeds, establishing an appropriate operating system to reduce heavy metal emissions, using international experiences on the effects and complications of heavy metals in water resources and farming, and performing quality control measures on the imported rice.
- Gilbert-Diamond D, Cottingham Kl, Gruber KL, Punshon T, Sayarath V, Gondolifi AJ. Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women. National Acad Sciences 2011; 108(51): 20656-60.
- Malakootian M. Yaghmaeian K. Meserghani M, Determination of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni concentration in Imported Indian Rice to Iran to Iran. Iran J Health Environ 2011; 4(1): 77-84.
- Arunakumara KKIU, Walpola CB, Yoon MH. Current status of heavy metal contamination in Asia,s rice lands. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology 2013; (12); 355-77.
- Yap DW, Adezrian J, Khairiah J, Ismail BS, Ahmad- Mahir R. The uptake of heavy metals by paddy plants (Oryza sativa) in Kota Marudu, Sabah, Malaysia. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environment Science 2009; 6(1): 16-19.
- Khan N, Ryu KY, Choi JY, Nho EY, Habte G, Choi H, et al. Determination of toxic heavy metals and speciation of arsenic in seaweeds from South Korea. Food Chem 2015; (169): 464-70.
- Cui YJ, Zhu YG, Zhai RH, Huang YZ, Qiu Y, Liang JZ, Exposure to metal mixtures and human health impacts in a contaminated area in Nanning, China. Environ Int 2005; (31): 784-90.
- Chaney RL, Reeves PG, Ryan JA, Simmons RW, Welch RM, Angle JS. An improved understanding of soil Cd risk to humans and low cost methods to phytoextract Cd from contaminated soils to prevent soil Cd risks. Biometals 2004; (17): 549-53.
- Kabata-Pendias A. Trace elements in soils and plants. 4nd ed, CRC Press. (Florida). 2010.
- Victor G. Mihucz. Arsenic removal from rice by washing and cooking with water. Food Chemistry 2007; 105(4): 1718-25.
- Sanaee Gh. Industrial Toxicology. Tehran University Press. 2nd ed. Vol 1. (Tehran). 2010.
- Shimbo S, Zhang ZW, Watanabe T, Nakatsuka H, Matsuda-Inogochi N, Higashikawa K, et al. Cadmium and lead content in rice and other cereal products in Japan in 1998-2000. Sci Total Environ 2001; (281): 165-75.
- AOAC. Method 986.15; Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Selenium, and Zinc in Human and Pet Foods, Multielement Method, Codex-AdoptedâAOAC Method, CAS-7440-43-9 (cadmium), CAS-7458-65-7 (arsenic), CAS-7439-92-1(lead). 1999.
- ISIRI (Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran). Food & Feed-Maximum limit of heavy metals, 1st. Edition, NO 12968. 2010.
- Naseri M, Vazirzadeh A, Kazemi R, Zaheri F. Concentration of some heavy metals in rice types available in Shiraz market and human health risk assessment. Food Chem 2015; (175): 243-8.
- Hedayatifar R, Falahi A, Birjand M. Determination of Cadmium and Lead levels in high consumed rice (Oryza Sativa L.) cultivated in Lorestan province and its comparison with national standards. Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Journal 2011; 4(3):12 [persian].
- Mosayebi M, Mirzaee H. Determination of Mycotoxin Contamination and Heavy Metals in Edible Rice Imported to Golestan Province. Iran J Health & Environ 2014; 6(4): 503-14.
- Rezaiyan Attar F, Hesari J. A Study on contamination of white rice by cadmium, lead and arsenic in Tabriz. J Food Res 2014; (4): 582-94.
- Zazooli MA, Bandpei AM, Ebrahimi M, Izanloo
- H. Investigation of Cadmium and Lead contents in Iranian rice cultivated in Babol Region. Asian Journal
- of Chemistry 2010; 22(2): 1369-76.
- Batista BL, Souza JMO, De Souza SS, Barbosa Jr F, Speciation of arsenic in rice and estimation of daily intake of different arsenic species by Brazilians through rice consumption. J Hazard Mater 2011; (191): 342-8.
- Cao H, Chen J, Zhang J, Zhang H, Qiao L, Men Y. Heavy metals in rice and garden vegetables and their potential health risks to inhabitants in the vicinity of an industrial zone in Jiangsu, China. J Environ Sci (China) 2010; 22(11): 1792-9.
- Bosque MA, Schuhmacher M, Domino JL, Lobet JM. Concentration of Lead and Cadmium in edible in vegetable from Tarragona province Spain. Sci Total Environ 1990; (95): 61-7.
- Liu JG, Liang JS, Li KQ, Zhang ZJ, Yu BY, Lu XL, et al. Correlations between Cadmium and Mineral nutrients in absorption and accumulation in various genotypes of rice under Cadmium stress. Chemosphere 2003; (52): 1467-73.
- Cheng W, Zhang G, Yao H, Zhang H. Genotypic difference of germination and early seedling growth in response to Cd stress and its relation to Cd accumulation. Journal of Plant Nutrition 2008; (31): 702-15.
- Jiang W, Struik PC, Lingna J, Keulen HV, Ming Z, Stomph TJ. Uptake and distribution of root-applied or foliarapplied 65 Zn after flowering in aerobic rice. Ann Appl Biol 2007; (150): 383-91.