Document Type : Original Article


Department of Civil Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O.Box. 19395-3697, Tehran, I.R of Iran


Background: The presence of quantities of dye chemicals in the textile industry effluent is clearly visible and harmful environmental impacts caused by chemical compounds are also as a noticeable challenge. Regarding this issue, control of the pollution has been considered.
Methods: In this study, an absorbent of Sodium Montmorillonite modified by Methylene Blue dye was used to remove Brilliant Red dye from the textile effluent. All batch experiments were carried out in 250mL of solution of 640 mg/L Methylene Blue with 2g of adsorbent and performed on a shaker with a shaking of 120 rpm; the precipitate was placed in an oven at 60◦C for 24 hours. The effective parameters on the adsorption including: pH, absorbance dose, dye concentration and contact time were optimized by using both one factor at a time technique and Central Composite Design method by designing 30 experiments with four variables (n= 4) and two levels (low (-) and high (+)).
Results: The optimal values of the influencing parameters such as pH, absorbance dose, dye concentration and contact time were determined at 6, 0.3 g, 80 mg/L and 60 min with an approximate 92% removal percentage, respectively. The results illustrated that the process was more consistent with Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second kinetics equation.
Conclusion: The adsorption behaviors of the modified absorbent showed that the adsorption kinetics and isotherms were in good agreement with pseudo-second-order equation and the Langmuir equation, respectively. The potential for regeneration and reuse of the modified absorbent was proved by the desorption studies.


1-OTERO, M., ROZADA, F., CALVO, L., GARCIA, A. and MORAN, A. 2003.Kinetic and equilibrium modeling of the methylene blue removal from solution by adsorbent materials produced from sewage sludge. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 15, 59-68.
2-KONICKI, W., ALEKSANDRZAK, M. and MIJOWSKA, E. 2017. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on adsorption of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions using graphene oxide. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 123,35-49.
3-MOHANTY, K., NAIDU, J. T., MEIKAP, B. and BISWAS, M. 2006. Removal of crystal violet from wastewater by activated carbons prepared from rice husk. Industrial & engineering chemistry research, 45, 5165-5171.
4-AKAR, T., DEMIR, T. A., KIRAN, I., OZCAN, A., OZCAN, A. S. and TUNALI, S. 2006. Biosorption potential of Neurospora crassa cells for decolorization of Acid Red 57 (AR57) dye. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology: International Research in Process, Environmental and Clean Technology, 81, 1100-1106.
5-AJMAL, M. & KHAN, A. U. 1985. Effects of a textile factory effluent on soil and crop plants. Environmental Pollution Series A, Ecological and Biological, 37, 131-148.
6-CRINI, G. 2006. Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review. Bioresource technology, 97, 1061-1085.
7-ROBINSON, T., MCMULLAN, G., MARCHANT, R. & NIGAM, P. 2001. Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresource technology, 77, 247-255.
8-SENTHILKUMAAR, S., VARADARAJAN, P., PORKODI, K. & SUBBHURAAM, C. 2005. Adsorption of methylene blue onto jute fiber carbon: kinetics and equilibrium studies. Journal of colloid and interface science, 284, 78-82.
9-ALINSAFI, A., KHEMIS, M., PONS, M., LECLERC, J., YAACOUBI, A., BENHAMMOU, A. & NEJMEDDINE, A. 2005. Electro-coagulation of reactive textile dyes and textile wastewater. Chemical engineering and processing: Process intensification, 44, 461-470.
10-CIARDELLI, G., CORSI, L. & MARCUCCI, M. 2001. Membrane separation for wastewater reuse in the textile industry. Resources, conservation and recycling, 31, 189-197.
11-DANESHVAR, N., VATANPOUR, S. V., KHATAEI, A., RASOULIFARD, M. & RASTGAR, M. 2008. Decolorization of mixture of dyes containing malachite green and orange II by fenton-like reagent.
12-GHOREISHI, S. & HAGHIGHI, R. 2003. Chemical catalytic reaction and biological oxidation for treatment of non-biodegradable textile effluent. Chemical engineering journal, 95, 163-169.
13-GUPTA, V. 2009. Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal–a review. Journal of environmental management, 90, 2313-2342.
14-GUPTA, V., MITTAL, A., GAJBE, V. & MITTAL, J. 2008. Adsorption of basic fuchsin using waste materials—bottom ash and deoiled soya—as adsorbents. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 319, 30-39.
15-GUPTA, V. K., JAIN, R. & VARSHNEY, S. 2007a. Removal of Reactofix golden yellow 3 RFN from aqueous solution using wheat husk—an agricultural waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 142, 443-448.
16-GUPTA, V. K., JAIN, R., VARSHNEY, S. & SAINI, V. K. 2007b. Removal of Reactofix Navy Blue 2 GFN from aqueous solutions using adsorption techniques. Journal of colloid and interface science, 307, 326-332.
17-SHIRINI, F., MAMAGHANI, M. & ATGHIA, S. V. 2012. A mild and efficient method for the chemoselective trimethylsilylation of alcohols and phenols and deprotection of silyl ethers using sulfonic acid-functionalized ordered nanoporous Na+-montmorillonite. Applied Clay Science, 58, 67-72.
18- CHEN, S., ZHOU, M., WANG, H.-F., WANG, T., WANG, X.-S., HOU, H.-B. & SONG, B.-Y. 2018. Adsorption of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B in Aqueous Solutions on Clay–Biochar Composites from Bagasse and Natural Attapulgite. Water, 10, 703.
19-TERÁN, E., MONTES, M., RODRÍGUEZ, C., MARTINO, L., QUIROGA, M., LANDA, R., SÁNCHEZ, R. T. & PACE, D. D. 2019. Assessment of sorption capability of montmorillonite clay for lead removal from water using laser–induced breakdown spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Microchemical Journal, 144, 159-165.
20-JEMIMA, W. S., MAGESAN, P., CHIRANJEEVI, P. & UMAPATHY, M. 2018. Sorption Properties of Organo Modified Montmorillonite Clay for the Reclamation of Chromium (VI) from Waste Water. Silicon, 1-9.
21-BEGUM, H. A. & KABIR, M. H. Removal of Brilliant Red from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Fish Scales. Dhaka University Journal of Science, 61, 7-12.
22-KıRANŞAN, M., SOLTANI, R. D. C., HASSANI, A., KARACA, S. & KHATAEE, A. 2014. Preparation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide modified montmorillonite nanomaterial for adsorption of a textile dye. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 45, 2565-2577.
23-RAHMAN, M. M., AKTER, N., KARIM, M. R., AHMAD, N., RAHMAN, M. M., SIDDIQUEY, I. A., BAHADUR, N. M. & HASNAT, M. A. 2014. Optimization, kinetic and thermodynamic studies for removal of Brilliant Red (X-3B) using Tannin gel. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2, 76-83.
24-WANG, G., WANG, S., SUN, Z., ZHENG, S. & XI, Y. 2017. Structures of nonionic surfactant modified montmorillonites and their enhanced adsorption capacities towards a cationic organic dye. Applied Clay Science, 148, 1-10.
25-ALMEIDA, C., DEBACHER, N., DOWNS, A., COTTET, L. & MELLO, C. 2009. Removal of methylene blue from colored effluents by adsorption on montmorillonite clay. Journal of colloïd and interface science, 332, 46-53.
26-MONVISADE, P. & SIRIPHANNON, P. 2009. Chitosan intercalated montmorillonite: Preparation, characterization and cationic dye adsorption. Applied Clay Science, 42, 427-431.
27-SUGASHINI, S. & BEGUM, K. M. S. 2013. Optimization using central composite design (CCD) for the biosorption of Cr (VI) ions by cross linked chitosan carbonized rice husk (CCACR). Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 15, 293-302.
28-BISWAS, S., BAL, M., BEHERA, S. K., SEN, T. K. & MEIKAP, B. C. 2019. Process Optimization Study of Zn2+ Adsorption on Biochar-Alginate Composite Adsorbent by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Water, 11, 325.
29-KUMAR, R., SINGH, R., KUMAR, N., BISHNOI, K. & BISHNOI, N. R. 2009. Response surface methodology approach for optimization of biosorption process for removal of Cr (VI), Ni (II) and Zn (II) ions by immobilized bacterial biomass sp. Bacillus brevis. Chemical Engineering Journal, 146, 401-407.
30-SAHU, J., ACHARYA, J. & MEIKAP, B. 2009. Response surface modeling and optimization of chromium (VI) removal from aqueous solution using Tamarind wood activated carbon in batch process. Journal of hazardous materials, 172, 818-825.
31-NANDI, B., GOSWAMI, A. & PURKAIT, M. 2009. Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by kaolin: kinetic and equilibrium studies. Applied Clay Science, 42, 583-590.
32-SEKI, Y. & YURDAKOÇ, K. 2006. Adsorption of promethazine hydrochloride with KSF montmorillonite. Adsorption, 12, 89-100.
33-LANGMUIR, I. 1916. I. Langmuir, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 38, 2221
34-FREUNDLICH, H. 1907. Über die adsorption in lösungen. Zeitschrift für physikalische Chemie, 57, 385-470.
35-RYTWO, G., HUTERER-HARARI, R., DULTZ, S. & GONEN, Y. 2006. Adsorption of fast green and erythrosin-B to montmorillonite modified with crystal violet. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 84, 225-231.
36-RYTWO, G. & RUIZ-HITZKY, E. 2003. Enthalpies of adsorption of methylene blue and crystal violet to montmorillonite. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 71, 751-759.
37-ROYER, B., CARDOSO, N. F., LIMA, E. C., VAGHETTI, J. C., SIMON, N. M., CALVETE, T. & VESES, R. C. 2009. Applications of Brazilian pine-fruit shell in natural and carbonized forms as adsorbents to removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions—Kinetic and equilibrium study. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164, 1213-1222.
38-HO, Y.-S. 2006. Second-order kinetic model for the sorption of cadmium onto tree fern: a comparison of linear and non-linear methods. Water research, 40, 119-125.
39-HO, Y.-S., CHIANG, T.-H. & HSUEH, Y.-M. 2005. Removal of basic dye from aqueous solution using tree fern as a biosorbent. Process Biochemistry, 40, 119-124.
40-AZIZIAN, S., ERIS, S. & WILSON, L. D. 2018. Re-evaluation of the century-old Langmuir isotherm for modeling adsorption phenomena in solution. Chemical Physics, 513, 99-104.
41-OLADOJA, N. A. & AKINLABI, A. K. 2009. Congo red biosorption on palm kernel seed coat. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 48, 6188-6196.
42-VAGHETTI, J. C., LIMA, E. C., ROYER, B., DA CUNHA, B. M., CARDOSO, N. F., BRASIL, J. L. & DIAS, S. L. 2009. Pecan nutshell as biosorbent to remove Cu (II), Mn (II) and Pb (II) from aqueous solutions. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162, 270-280.