Document Type: Original Articles


1 Ph.D, Research Center for Health Sciences, Institute of Health, Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Student Research Committee, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 BSc Student, Student Research Committee, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 Department of Occupational Health and Safety Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

5 Department of Ergonomics, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Background: The classroom is an important part of the educational environment, which should meet the standard requirements including safety and adequate spaces regarding the number of learners, color, lighting, noise, proper equipment, and air conditioning. This study aimed to investigate the safety level of classrooms in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) classrooms (n = 63), in the south-west of Iran. Data regarding the safety measures were collected using an audit checklist.  Finally, an index called Classroom Safety Requirement Index (CSRI) was introduced in order to calculate percentage of safety measures in the classrooms.
Results: The results revealed that the ‘environmental condition’ dimension of the CSRI was in a good level. The ‘building’, ‘equipment’ and ‘electrical’ dimensions were in the medium level, and the ‘fire safety and emergency’ dimension was placed in the poor level. 38.70% of the classes (24 classes) were in the Standard Occupant Load (SOL or degree of overcrowding) and others (61.30% of classrooms) were overcrowded (unacceptable occupant load).
Conclusion: The examined classrooms were very poor regarding the ‘fire safety’ and ‘emergency exit’, which requires proper and appropriate measures to improve safety in these areas.


1.            Alshuwaikhat HM, Abubakar I. An integrated approach to achieving campus sustainability: assessment of the current campus environmental management practices. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2008;16(16):1777-85. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2007.12.002

2.            Brewer A, Walker I. Risk management in a university environment. Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning. 2011;5(2):161-72. PMID:21835754

3.            Li J, Pang Q. Research on fire safety management system in colleges and universities. Review of Educational Theory. 2019;2(1):11-5. DOI: 10.30564/ret.v2i1.435

4.            Ismail AR, Hamzah NA, Makhtar NK, Daud KAM, Khidzir NZ, Hassan NHC, et al., editors. Risk assessment in infrastructure in educational institution: A study in Malaysia. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering; 2017: IOP Publishing. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/257/1/012056

5.            Olewski T, Snakard M. Challenges in applying process safety management at university laboratories. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 2017;49:209-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.jlp.2017.06.013

6.            Safety Mangement Resources Corporation. Risk assessment and safety evaluation of fall potential from windows, balconies and decks at Washington State University Pullman. Washington: Safety Mangement Resources Corporation; 2017-2018.

7.            Shield B, Dockrell JE. External and internal noise surveys of London primary schools. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 2004;115(2):730-8. DOI: 10.1121/1.1635837

8.            Udin A, Rajuddin MR,  editors. Physical environment in school setting: Conceptual reviews. Seminar Penyelidikan Pendidikan Pasca Ijazah 2008; 2008 25–27 November 2008; University Teknologi Malaysia.

9.            Zaki GR, Tayel KY, Reda MM, Mahmoud AH, Labib EI. Evaluation of leading safety performance of primary school buildings in alexandria, Egypt. Journal of High Institute of Public Health. 2018;48(2):77-84. DOI: 10.21608/jhiph.2018.19913

10.          World Health Organization. The physical school environment: an essential element of a health-promoting school. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004.

11.          Holley LC, Steiner S. Safe space: Student perspectives on classroom environment. Journal of Social Work Education. 2005;41(1):49-64. DOI: 10.5175/JSWE.2005.200300343

12.          Neshat A, Dastoorani M, Ramazani A, Changizi H, Jabbarzare M. Investigation of environmental health and safety situations in elementary and guide schools of Zabol, 2010. Journal of Zabol University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (Journal of Rostamineh). 2011;2(3):52-61.

13.          Sosnowska S, Kostka T. Epidemiology of school accidents during a six school-year period in one region in Poland. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2003;18(10):977-82. DOI: 10.1023/A:1025802203726

14.          Panhani D. Education in unsafe schools. Vista Journal. Available from:

15.          Records of fire in Iranian schools. Khabaronline. 2012.  Available from:

16.          Environment & Occupational Health Center. School environment health regulations. Tehran: Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Available from:

17.          Jahangiri M, Azizi K, Ahmadi SF, Mahmoudabadi B, Behbood F, Delikhoon M. A survey of the safety conditions of student housings: A case study in a type one university in Shiraz, Iran. Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System. 2017;5(1):38-42.

18.          National Science Teaching Association (NSTA) Safety Advisory Board. Overcrowding in the instructional Space. Arlington, Texas: NSTA Safety Advisory Board; 2014.

19.          Lemaire J. Budgets lag behind needs. Education. 2016;97(6):14.

20.          State Fire Marshal. Minnesota Department of Public Safety. Available from:

21.          General Convention of Texas. Rules of thumb: Education space. Texas: Texas Baptist; 2011. Available from: