Document Type : Review Articles


1 Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Health Center of Chabahar, Iranshahr University of Medical Science and Services

3 Research Center for Health Sciences, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 Zoonoses Research Center, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran

5 Department of Pathology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6 Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

7 Health Promotion Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

8 Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

9 Department of General Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Iran


Background: Lice are obligate parasites that bring about some mild infestation or severe diseases on different parts of the human body. Head lice can easily spread in an overcrowded community with inadequate hygienic conditions. Also, it affects children’s well-being and education programs.
Methods: This study is a narrative review.  To carry out this comprehensive research about pediculosis in Iran, all published data on scientific research resources were included i.e.  Google scholar, Springer, ProQuest, JSTOR, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCO, Bioline, BioOne, ScienceDirect, ResearchGate, PubMed, Sage, Wiley Online Library, World Scientific, and SID.  
Results: Overall, 52,342 students (from primary and secondary schools) and around 20,000 adult persons were infested with P. capitis in Iran during 3 decades (1990-2020) as reported by published documents but the actual number may statistically be higher. The variation of results implies that risk factors are linked with numerous cultural, geographical, economic, and personal habits.  In general, the infestation rate of Pediculosis capitis in the south and southeast was higher than in other parts of Iran.
Conclusion: Family members shouldavoid sharing hair tools particularly hairbrushes. Authors believe that not only economic situations but also some behaviors originating from personality traits influenced children's health. In this regard, children in higher grades might tend to conceal


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