Document Type : Original Article


Department of Public Health Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, National Open University of Nigeria, Plot 91, Cadastral Zone, University Village, Nnamdi Azikiwe Expressway, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria


Background: Anaemia is a major public health problem in developing countries, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. About 43.0% of children under five years are anaemic worldwide, and two-third are residing in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk of anaemia, age and sex-related prevalence among the children aged  0-5 years in Gwagwalada area Council, Abuja.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between February 2018 and October 2019 in four selected operating Clinics (Township; Angwan-Dodo Primary Health; Dagiri Primary Health and Paiko Primary Health Clinics);  one hundred and fifty blood samples were collected using cluster random sampling from 0-5 year old children to determine the prevalence of anemia among them, using the standard Cyanmethaemoglobin method, with a view to establishing the age and sex mostly affected. Statistical analysis was done using Odds ratio (OR), Chi-square, and simple percentages.
Results: Out of the 150 children with the mean standard deviation of 2.9 ± 1.09 years screened for anemia, 88(58.7%)  had anemia, while the age-related prevalence was higher in 2-3 year old age group with 26(70.3%; OR= 2.03) followed by those within the age range of 3-4 years with 24 subjects (64.9%; OR = 1.59). The sex-related prevalence was higher in females with 48 subjects (61.5%); economic status, educational and job status of the children’s parents had a significant effect on the prevalence of anemia.
Conclusion: The total prevalence rate of 58.7% of anemia among the children demands urgent attention to prevent anaemia associated complications among them. Continuous public health education programs for the mothers and caretakers of the children are suggested to upgrade their knowledge on anemia, higlighting the need and importance of proper nutrition with iron-supplement.


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