Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz. Iran

2 Department of Health Promotion and Education, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 HIV/AIDS Research center, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

10.30476/jhsss.2021.89590.1169

Abstract

Background: Increased proportion of the retired population and the occurrence of retirement syndrome may significantly affect the Quality of life (QoL) and the well-being of older people. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the effect of training intervention on retirement syndrome and QoL among retired older men in Safashahr, Iran, in 2019.
Methods: Using a randomized block design, the quasi-experimental study was conducted on 140 retired men with retirement syndrome. The subjects’ average age was 61.24±1.36 years. The older people were selected by purposive sampling and then randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=70) and a control group (n=70). The intervention comprised five 90-minute sessions of the practical training course of exercises for over 45 days in the experimental group. The study outcomes, such as retirement syndrome and QoL, were measured before, immediately after, and two months after the intervention. The study data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 25, independent sample t-tests, Chi-square tests, and repeated measure ANOVA. The significance level was set at 0.05.
Results: Based on the average score of retirement syndrome (< 0.001) and its subscales, such as helplessness and failure (HF) (p< 0.001), feeling of old and idle (FOI) (<0.001), feeling of confusion and conflict (FCC) (p<0.001), and feeling of effort and a new direction (FED) (p=0.025); an average score of QoL (p<0.001) and all its subscales, including physical activities (p<0.001), physical health (p<0.001), emotional problems (p<0.001), vitality (p< 0.001), mental health (p<0.001), general health perceptions (<0.001), except for physical pain (0.347) and social performance (0.41), there is a significant difference between the two experimental and control groups, before and after the intervention.
Conclusion: The findings may provide valuable implications for the development of exercises among the elderly and further studies to evaluate the long-term effects of such interventions among the elderly.

Keywords

1. Tanjani PT, Motlagh ME, Nazar MM, Najafi F. The health status of the elderly population of Iran in 2012. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2015;60(2):281-7.
2. Hazzard WR, Halter JB, Ouslander J. Hazzard's Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Sixth Edition: McGrawHill Education; 2017.
3. WHO Global Report on Falls Prevention in Older Age. Report. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2007 .
4. Jahangiri H. Draft: Hamideh Jahangiri. The Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS) Award.     2008 Nov.
5. Rohani M, Dehdari T, Hosseinyrad M, Alaei M. The Frequency of Domestic Elder Abuse in Tehran City, Iran, in 2018. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2019; 14 (3) :368-379
6. Sam S, Mahmoodi Y, Tirgar A. Retirement Syndrome Among Babol City Retirees. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2015; 10 (3) :100-109.
7.  Gulparvar, M., et al. (1390). "The Relationship between Components of Retirement Syndrome with General Health Symptoms in Retired Elderly." 6 (20)
8. Bozorgmehri K. Assessment the retirement and beginning to retirement syndrome and relation between beginning retirement syndrome with workaholism in Esfahan city. Esfahan: Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch. 2007.
9. Mohammadlo H, Kargarbarzi H, Khanbani M, AminiYeganeh P. The Relationship Between The Spouse’s Perception of sacrificing Behavior and Family Functioning and Marital Satisfaction in The Elderly Retired Nurses of Tehran. joge. 2016; 1 (2) :45-53.
10. Yektatalab, S., et al. The Effect of Psychoeducational Intervention on Retirement Syndrome Among Retired Nurses: A Field Trial. Online J Health Allied Scs, 2017, 16.4: 8.‏
11. Langlois F, Vu TTM, Chassé K, Dupuis G, Kergoat M-J, Bherer L. Benefits of physical exercise training on cognition and quality of life in frail older adults. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B. 2013;68(3):400-4
12. Hassanpour Dehkordi A, Rastar AA. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on Social Performance and Quality of Life in Aging. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2016;11(2):244-9.
13. Samadian F, Garrusi S. The Relationship between Attitude, Social Support, and Elderly’s Life of Quality (A case study of Kerman). Social Sciences 2019.
14. Nobahar M, Ahmadi F, Alhani F, Fallahi Khoshknab M. Designing an Adaptation Model for Retired Nurses. IJN. 2012; 24 (74) :63-71
15. Shafiee, A. Rezai, F. The relationship between job satisfaction and quality of life with retirement satisfaction among retired employees. Counseling and Psychotherapy Culture. 1395; 1395 (27).
16. Fouladian, M., et al. "A Study of the Status of Elderly Social Dignity (Comparison of Residents of Mashhad Centers with Non-Residents)". In Aging in Iran (with a psychosocial approach) 2018 Nov 19.
17. Zhao L, Wu H, Zhou X, Wang Q, Zhu W, Chen J. Effects of progressive muscular relaxation training on anxiety, depression and quality of life of endometriosis patients under gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist therapy. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2012;162(2):211-5.
18. Hassanpour-Dehkordi A, Jalali A. Effect of progressive muscle relaxation on the fatigue and quality of life among Iranian aging persons. Acta Medica Iranica. 2016 Jul 9:430
19. akbarzadeh r, koushan m, rakhshani mh, hashemi nik sm. effect of the benson relaxation technique on quality of sleep in patients with chronic heart disease. journal of sabzevar university of medical sciences. 2014;21(3):-.
20. Statistics of retirees of the National Pension Fund. 2018; Available from: https://www.tasnimnews.com/fa/news/1397/04/31/1782718/.
21. Noh, J.-W., et al., Gender differences in the impact of retirement on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older adults: A propensity score matching approach. PloS one, 2019. 14(3).
22. Resnick B, Nahm ES. Reliability and validity testing of the revised 12-item Short-Form Health Survey in older adults. Journal of nursing measurement. 2001;9(2):151-61.
23. Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Mousavi SJ, Omidvari S. The Iranian version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12): factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity. BMC public health. 2009;9(1):341.
24. De Vries MK. The Retirement Syndrome:: The Psychology of Letting Go. European Management Journal. 2003;21(6):707-1.
25. Drentea P. Retirement and mental health. Journal of aging and health. 2002;14(2):167-94.
26. Farnam a. the effect of positive thinking training in enhancement of quality and hope of life among the elderly. positive psychology research. 2016;2(1 (5) #p00169).
27. Heidari M, Shahbazi S. Effect of self-care training program on quality of life of elders. Iran Journal of Nursing. 2012;25(75):1-8.
28. Shahriari M, Dehghan M, Pahlavanzadeh S, Hazini A. Effects of progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery and deep diaphragmatic breathing on quality of life in elderly with breast or prostate cancer. Journal of education and health promotion. 2017;6.
29. Yoo HJ, Ahn SH, Kim SB, Kim WK, Han OS. Efficacy of progressive muscle relaxation training and guided imagery in reducing chemotherapy side effects in patients with breast cancer and in improving their quality of life. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2005 Oct 1;13(10):826-33.
30. Kianpour Ghahfarokhi F, Hooman F, Yazdi Mazidi S, Ahmadi V. The Relationship Between Demographic Characteristics and Retirement Satisfaction in Elderly Retirement. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2011; 6 (3) :40-48.