Document Type : Review Articles


1 Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Mining, Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa

4 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

5 Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Applied Physics, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

6 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Behbahan Faculty of Medical Sciences, Behbahan, Iran


Background: Treating working fluid wastewater (WFW) by having several organic/inorganic pollutants is not an easy task. There are many hurdles to adopt an appropriate treatment strategy through biological, physical, chemical, and electrochemical approaches. Methods: The treatment methods of WFW are reviewed in this work through a critical literature survey. Therefore, databases such as Google scholar, science direct, and PubMed were considered to find literature. Altogether, about 49 articles were finally found relevant to the topic to extract and interpret findings. Results: The best solution to treat WFW could be an integrated approach by designing various AOPs for the pre-treatment and post-treatment of main units. For this reason, and to meet discharge standards, measuring intermediates and the toxicity of reaction solution and final effluent by bioassay could be a complementary tool. Additionally, if the used AOP is a photocatalytic one, applying catalysts with a low energy bandgap and designing reactors to utilize the highest amount of energy is crucial to make a process cost-effective. Furthermore, using aeration could increase the number of radicals by supplying oxygen and removing contaminants from the reaction medium. Finally, if AOPs are the pretreatment unit, removing halogens should be done to predict floc breakage in the next step. Conclusion: Hybrid treatment approaches with at least 80% efficiency in degrading and removing micropollutants could be reliable methods to dispose of working fluid wastewater. However, further research on them in the future is essential because of discharging a considerable volume of them annually worldwide.


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