Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Occupational Health and Safety Engineering, School of Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran

2 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran

3 Department of Public Health, School of Health, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran

4 Health Sciences Research Center, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran

5 Department of Social Work, Social Studies Faculty, Hanze University of Applied Science, Groningen, Netherlands

6 Vice Chancellery of Education and Research, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran

7 Department of Occupational Health and Safety Engineering, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Saveh University of Medical Sciences, Saveh, Iran

8 Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

9 AMbient Intelligence Lab (AMI-Lab), Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada

10 Occupational Medicine Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: People’s participation in more efficient control of the disease and public awareness about the risk of COVID-19 affect their preventive behavior. This study examines the level of fear of COVID-19 infection in Iranian society after returning to social activities and business reopening. Methods: This Cross-Sectional study consisted of urban dwellers in Iran, and the data gathering tool was a researcher-designed questionnaire. To design the instrument, the authors interviewed experts and ordinary people to determine the key questions . Then, the questions were modified and finalized based on the experts’ feedback and a reexamination by the experts after two weeks. An online version of the questionnaire was disseminated using social networks. 168 people were included in the study by the available sampling method. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics methods. Quantitative data as mean and standard deviation were reported, and the qualitative data were reported as numbers. Chi-square test and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to examine the relationship between questions related to COVID-19 infection fear and demographic variables. Data analyses were done in SPSS 20. Results: The study was carried out on 168 participants, and 78 of them were employees of different offices. The participants believed that among the ways of spreading the disease, kissing and hugging (n=142, 84.5%), shaking hands (n=127, 75.6%), contact with the saliva of an infected person (n=116, 69.0%), and spread through the air (n=60, 35.7%) had the highest frequencies. Conclusion: Fear of COVID-19 infection in the participants was at moderate and above moderate levels. The participants also hoped that the vaccine would be found and made available to the public. Policy-makers in the health sector can use the results.


  1. Feiz Arefi M, Delshad M H, Babaei Pouya A, Abdollahi M, Kamali M, poursadeghiyan M. Psychometric Properties of Coronavirus Infection Risk Perception Questionnaire with a Working Life Approach. AOH. 2022; 6 (2) :1211-17.
  2. Farahati m. Psychological consequences of the prevalence of coronavirus in society. Journal of Social Effects Assessment. 2020;1(2):207-25.
  3. Kwok KO, Li K-K, Chan H, Yi YY, Tang A, Wei WI, et al. Community response during the early phase of COVID 19 epidemic in Hong Kong: risk perception, information exposure and preventive measures. Med Rxiv. 2020.
  4. Cirrincione L, Plescia F, Ledda C, Rapisarda V, Martorana D, Moldovan RE, et al. COVID-19 Pandemic: Prevention and Protection Measures to Be Adopted at the Workplace. Sustainability. 2020;12(9):3603.
  5. Zhu Z, Xu S, Wang H, Liu Z, Wu J, Li G, et al. COVID-19 in Wuhan: Sociodemographic characteristics and hospital support measures associated with the immediate psychological impact on healthcare workers. EClinicalMedicine. 2020;24:100443-.
  6. Abid M, Riaz M, Bano Z, Parveen T, Umar Fayyaz M, Sadia Qureshi H. Association Between Fear of COVID-19 and Emotional Distress in Nurses With Mediating Role of Socio-Demographic Features. Frontiers in psychology. 2021;12:734623-.
  7. Riaz B, Rafai WA, Ussaid A, Masood A, Anwar S, Baig FA, et al. The psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers in Pakistan. Future Healthc J. 2021;8(2):e293-e8.
  8. Soltaninejad M, Babaei-Pouya A, Poursadeqiyan M, Feiz Arefi M. Ergonomics factors influencing school education during the COVID-19 pandemic: A literature review. Work. 2021;68(1):69-75.
  9. Maleki Roveshti M, Gelichi Z, barzanouni S, Feiz Arefi M, Saber E, hosseini J, Poursadeghiyan M. Study and Comparison Iranian preventive Behaviors of Covid-19 Outbreak: A two-year experience (2020-2021). Journal of Research in Environmental Health. 2022; 8(1):15-19.
  10. Ghalichi Zaveh Z, Babaei Pouya A, Ghanbari Sagharloo N, Azizi Fard L, Abdollahi M, Khammar A, et al . Designing a Tool for Measuring Preventive Behaviors Against Coronavirus (PBAC) in Lifestyle and Homebased Jobs of Iranian. AOH. 2022; 6 (2) :1218-1223
  11. Jahangiri M, Zadeh KS, Bashar O, Zadeh HS. Investigating effective factors on risk perception, safety attitude and safety performance of construction workers of Shiraz city, 2012. 2017.
  12. Samadipour E, Ghardashi F. Factors influencing Iranians' risk perception of Covid-19. Journal of Military Medicine. 2020;22(2):122-9.
  13. Arefi MF, Babaei AP, Barzanouni S, Ebrahimi S, Salehi AR, Khajehnasiri F, Poursadeghian M. Risk Perception in the COVID-19 pandemic; a health promotion approach. J Edu Health Promot 2022;11:118.
  14. Maddux JE, Rogers RW. Protection motivation and self-efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 1983;19(5):469-79.
  15. Pieh C, Budimir S, Probst T. The effect of age, gender, income, work, and physical activity on mental health during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown in Austria. J Psychosom Res. 2020;136:110186-.
  16. Dargahi A, Gholizadeh H, Poursadeghiyan M, Hamidzadeh Y, Hamidzadeh MH, Hosseini J. Health-promoting behaviors in staff and students of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences. J Edu Health Promot 2022;9:X.
  17. Lahoti A, Makasare K. Corona virus outbreak and Radiology Department: Workplace preparedness, evidence based measures to limit transmission, and how radiologist can help reduce the spread. Journal of Dr NTR University of Health Sciences. 2020;9(2):67.
  18. Zhong B-L, Luo W, Li H-M, Zhang Q-Q, Liu X-G, Li W-T, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. International journal of biological sciences. 2020;16(10):1745-52.
  19. Barzinjy AA, Aziz KF, Hussen BM, Qader SS, Hamad SM, Qader AS, et al. Fear of COVID-19 as a precautionary measure to prevent the epidemic among the population of the Kurdistan Region/Iraq: based on a questionnaire survey. Z Gesundh Wiss. 2021:1-8.
  20. Ahorsu DK, Lin C-Y, Imani V, Saffari M, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Development and Initial Validation. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2020:1-9.
  21. Filatov A, Sharma P, Hindi F, Espinosa PS. Neurological Complications of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Encephalopathy. Cureus. 2020;12(3):e7352-e.
  22. Nobel YR, Phipps M, Zucker J, Lebwohl B, Wang TC, Sobieszczyk ME, et al. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Case-Control Study From the United States. Gastroenterology. 2020;159(1):373-5.e2.
  23. Hu Y, Sun J, Dai Z, Deng H, Li X, Huang Q, et al. Prevalence and severity of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Virol. 2020;127:104371-.