Document Type : Original Article
Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
The Persian Gulf Tropical Medicine Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
Department of Gerontology, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health (Tehran Institute of Psychiatry), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been around for more than a year as a global problem, the nurses being among the first groups involved in treating epidemics. In addition to becoming infected and dying from the disease, nurses also suffer from death anxiety. This study aimed to predict mental health by religious orientation and the mediating role of death anxiety among nurses in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: The present descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted on 208 nurses working in the Central Hospital for the Treatment of COVID-19 patients who enrolled in the census in the Persian Gulf Martyrs Hospital in Bushehr. Data collection tools were the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), the Templer’s Death Anxiety Scale (DAS), and the Revised Religious Orientation Scale (ROS). Data were analyzed by SPSS v.22 software using the Pearson correlation test and multiple regression analysis (α=0.01).
Results: According to the findings, death anxiety significantly and negatively affected mental health (P<0.001, β=-0.54). Intrinsic religious orientation led to a reduction in death anxiety (P=0.01, β=-0.16) and improved mental health (P<0.001, β=0.40), while extrinsic socially-oriented religiousness resulted in increased death anxiety (P<0.001, β=0.19) and decreased mental health (P<0.001, β=-0.20).
Conclusion: More than half of the nurses had death anxiety in the COVID-19 epidemic, which decreased their mental health. This study revealed that the intrinsic religious orientation positively reduced death anxiety and promoted mental health.
- Gao GF. From "A"IV to "Z"IKV: Attacks from Emerging and Re-emerging Pathogens. Cell. 2018 Mar 8;172(6):1157-9. PubMed PMID: 29522735. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc7126677. Epub 2018/03/10. eng.
- Mohammad E, Reza N, Razieh F. COVID-19 epidemic: Hospital-level response. Nursing Practice Today. 2020 04/01;7(2).
- Lázaro-Pérez C, Martínez-López JÁ, Gómez-Galán J, López-Meneses E. Anxiety about the risk of death of their patients in health professionals in Spain: Analysis at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(16):5938.
- An Y, Yang Y, Wang A, Li Y, Zhang Q, Cheung T, et al. Prevalence of depression and its impact on quality of life among frontline nurses in emergency departments during the COVID-19 outbreak. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2020 2020/11/01/;276:312-5.
- Zheng R, Zhou Y, Fu Y, Xiang Q, Cheng F, Chen H, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety among nurses during the outbreak of COVID-19 in China: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2021 2021/02/01/;114:103809.
- Arimura M, Imai M, Okawa M, Fujimura T, Yamada N. Sleep, mental health status, and medical errors among hospital nurses in Japan. Industrial health. 2010;48(6):811-7. PubMed PMID: 20616466. Epub 2010/07/10. eng.
- Raeissi P, Raeissi N, Shokouhandeh L. The Relationship between Nurse's Mental health and Working Motivation in Ganjavian Hospital, Dezfool, Iran. Advances in Nursing & Midwifery. 2014;24(86):35-42. Fa.
- Sadock B, Sadock V, Ruiz P. Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2017. 12754-5 p.
- Jonasen AM, O’Beirne BR. Death Anxiety in Hospice Employees. OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying. 2016;72(3):234-46.
- Menzies RE, Menzies RG. Death anxiety in the time of COVID-19: theoretical explanations and clinical implications. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist. 2020;13:e19. Epub 06/11.
- Iverach L, Menzies RG, Menzies RE. Death anxiety and its role in psychopathology: reviewing the status of a transdiagnostic construct. Clinical psychology review. 2014 Nov;34(7):580-93. PubMed PMID: 25306232. Epub 2014/10/13. eng.
- Barrett C. Death Anxiety. In: Gellman MD, Turner JR, editors. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2013. p. 541-2.
- Fortner BV, Neimeyer RA, Rybarczyk B. Correlates of death anxiety in older adults: A comprehensive review. Death attitudes and the older adult: Theories, concepts, and applications. Series in death, dying, and bereavement. New York, NY, US: Brunner-Routledge; 2000. p. 95-108.
- Yalom ID. Staring at the Sun: Overcoming the Terror of Death. The Humanistic Psychologist. 2008 2008/11/18;36(3-4):283-97.
- Masoudzadeh A, Setareh J, Mohammadpour RA, Modanloo kordi M. A survey of death anxiety among personnel of a hospital in Sari. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2008;18(67):84-90. eng.
- Payne SA, Dean SJ, Kalus C. A comparative study of death anxiety in hospice and emergency nurses. J Adv Nurs. 1998 Oct;28(4):700-6. PubMed PMID: 9829656. Epub 1998/11/26. eng.
- Koenig mdmsHG, Ford mdSM, George pdLK, Blazer mdpdDG, Meador mdtmKG. Religion and anxiety disorder: An examination and comparison of associations in young, middle-aged, and elderly adults. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 1993 1993/10/01/;7(4):321-42.
- Moltafet G, Mazidi M, Sadati S. Personality traits, religious orientation and happiness. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2010 2010/01/01/;9:63-9.
- Doane MJ, Elliott M, Dyrenforth PS. Extrinsic Religious Orientation and Well-Being: Is Their Negative Association Real or Spurious? Review of Religious Research. 2014 2014/03/01;56(1):45-60.
- Özgüç S, Kaplan Serin E, Tanriverdi D. Death Anxiety Associated With Coronavirus (COVID-19) Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying. 2021:00302228211050503.
- Silva WAD, Brito TRdS, Pereira CR. Anxiety associated with COVID-19 and concerns about death: Impacts on psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences. 2021 2021/07/01/;176:110772.
- Ghorbani N, Watson PJ, Chen Z, Norballa F. Self-Compassion in Iranian Muslims: Relationships With Integrative Self-Knowledge, Mental Health, and Religious Orientation. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. 2012 2012/03/22;22(2):106-18.
- tagharrobi z, sharifi k, sooky z. Psychometric Analysis of Persian GHQ-12 with C-GHQ Scoring Style. Preventive Care In Nursing and Midwifery Journal. 2015;4(2):66-80. eng.
- Azizi A, Sepahvani MA, Mohamadi J. Relationship between Moral Distress and Mental Health among Female Nurses. Iran Journal of Nursing. 2015;27(92):57-64. eng.
- Tavakoli MA, Ahmadzadeh B. Investigation of validity and reliability of templer death anxiety scale. Though Behav Clin Psychol. 2011;6(21):80-72. English.
- Tomás-Sábado J, Gómez-Benito J. Psychometric properties of the Spanish form of Templer's Death Anxiety Scale. Psychological reports. 2002 Dec;91(3 Pt 2):1116-20. PubMed PMID: 12585522. Epub 2003/02/15. eng.
- Moudi S, Bijani A, Tayebi M, Habibi S. Relationship between Death Anxiety and Mental Health Status among Nurses in Hospitals Affiliated to Babol University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Babol University Of Medical Sciences. 2017;19(2):47-53. eng.
- Díaz M, Juarros N, García B, Sáez C. Study on anxiety in intensive care nursing professionals facing the process of death. Burgos University Hospital (HUBU). 2017;16(1):246-65.
- Peters L, Cant R, Payne S, O'Connor M, McDermott F, Hood K, et al. How death anxiety impacts nurses' caring for patients at the end of life: a review of literature. The open nursing journal. 2013;7:14-21. PubMed PMID: 23400515. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc3565229. Epub 2013/02/13. eng.
- Yaghobi A, Zoghipaidar MR, Nabizadeh S. The relationship between religious orientation and death anxiety with mental health among elderly. Journal of Geriatric Nursing. 2017;4(1):71-84. eng.
- Dadgari F, Rouhi M, Farsi Z. Death anxiety in nurses working in critical care units of AJA hospitals. Military Caring Sciences. 2015;2(3):150-7. eng.
- NADERI F, BAKHTIAR POOR S, SHOKOUHI M. THE COMPARISON OF DEATH ANXIETY, OPTIMISM AND SENSE OF HUMOR AMONG FEMALE NURSES. WOMAN AND CULTURE. 2010;1(3):41-50.
- Arab M, Seyed Bagheri SH, Sayadi A, Heydarpour Comparison of Death Anxiety, Death Obsession, and Humor Among Nurses Working in Medical-Surgical Departments and Intensive Care Units. Arch Neurosci. 2019;6(2):e86398. Epub 2019-02-01. en.
- shahyad s, Mohammadi MT. Psychological Impacts of Covid-19 Outbreak on Mental Health Status of Society Individuals: A Narrative Review. Journal of Military Medicine. 2020;22(2):184-92. eng.
- Bakan AB, Arli SK, Yıldız M. Relationship Between Religious Orientation and Death Anxiety in Elderly Individuals. Journal of Religion and Health. 2019 2019/12/01;58(6):2241-50.
- Kuyel N, Cesur S, Ellison CG. Religious orientation and mental health: a study with Turkish university students. Psychological reports. 2012 Apr;110(2):535-46. PubMed PMID: 22662408. Epub 2012/06/06. eng.
- varaee p, Momeni K, Moradi A. Structural Equation Modeling: A Study on the Effect of Religious Orientation on the Psychological Wellbeing Concerning the Mediating Role of Death Anxiety and Self-compassion in the Male Elderly Living in Kermanshah City in 2017. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2019;14(2):162-77. eng.