Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Community Medicine, Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Health Behavior Science Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 Department of Community Medicine, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran



Background: The COVID-19 pandemic reminded scientists of the importance of designing and implementing efficient research. In this study, the frequency and quality of Iranian researchers’ manuscripts about COVID-19 were evaluated.
Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted on June 30, 2020, to assess the quality of published articles. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched. The inclusion criteria were all articles in the field of COVID-19 published by an Iranian author in English. The authors reviewed the original research articles and systematic reviews using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Checklists. Descriptive statistics and frequency distributions were reported.
Results: After removing duplicates, 347 out of 871 related retrieved articles were remained. Among 35 original articles, thirty-one (88.6%) of them were Cross-sectional articles. There were only one Randomized clinical trial article, one Casecontrol, and two diagnostic articles. Among original researches, deficiency in reporting the sampling method, data analysis, the accuracy of the measurements, sample size calculation method, and choosing comparison groups and blinding (in RCTs) were the most common problems. Nearly 40% of original articles and 81.3% of systematic reviews andmeta-analyses were classified as good-quality articles.
Conclusion: Most original articles did not have good quality, while the decisions about treatment and prevention of COVID-19 and policy-making about social restriction depend on the quality of the articles. Journals should be more careful in reviewing articles critically.


  1. Graham ID, Tetroe J; KT Theories Research Group. Some theoretical underpinnings of knowledge translation. Acad Emerg Med. 2007;14(11):936-41. doi: 10.1197/j.aem.2007.07.004. PMID: 17967955.
  2. Hedges JR. The knowledge translation paradigm: historical, philosophical, and practice perspectives. Acad Emerg Med. 2007;14(11):924-7. doi: 10.1197/j.aem.2007.06.016. Epub 2007 Aug 17. PMID: 17704350.
  3. Roberts SF, Fischhoff MA, Sakowski SA, Feldman EL. Perspective: Transforming science into medicine: how clinician-scientists can build bridges across research's "valley of death". Acad Med. 2012;87(3):266-70. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3182446fa3. PMID: 22373616.
  4. Muniyappa R, Gubbi S. COVID-19 pandemic, coronaviruses, and diabetes mellitus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020;318(5):E736-E741. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00124.2020. Epub 2020 Mar 31. PMID: 32228322; PMCID: PMC7191633.
  5. Li S, Wang Y, Xue J, Zhao N, Zhu T. The Impact of COVID-19 Epidemic Declaration on Psychological Consequences: A Study on Active Weibo Users. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(6):2032. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17062032. PMID: 32204411; PMCID: PMC7143846.
  6. Cortegiani A, Ingoglia G, Ippolito M, Giarratano A, Einav S. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. J Crit Care. 2020;57:279-283. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005. Epub 2020 Mar 10. PMID: 32173110; PMCID: PMC7270792.
  7. Cascella M, Rajnik M, Aleem A, Dulebohn SC, Di Napoli R. Features, Evaluation, and Treatment of Coronavirus (COVID-19). 2023. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan–. PMID: 32150360.
  8. Adhikari SP, Meng S, Wu YJ, Mao YP, Ye RX, Wang QZ et al. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020;9(1):29. doi: 10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x. PMID: 32183901; PMCID: PMC7079521.
  9. Sohrabi C, Alsafi Z, O'Neill N, Khan M, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, et al. World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Int J Surg. 2020;76:71-76. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.02.034. Epub 2020 Feb 26. Erratum in: Int J Surg. 2020 May;77:217. PMID: 32112977; PMCID: PMC7105032.
  10. Singhal T. A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian J Pediatr. 2020;87(4):281-286. doi: 10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6. Epub 2020 Mar 13. PMID: 32166607; PMCID: PMC7090728.
  11. Sanders JM, Monogue ML, Jodlowski TZ, Cutrell JB. Pharmacologic Treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review. JAMA. 2020;323(18):1824-1836. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.6019. PMID: 32282022.
  12. Tuite AR, Bogoch II, Sherbo R, Watts A, Fisman D, Khan K. Estimation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Burden and Potential for International Dissemination of Infection From Iran. Ann Intern Med. 2020;172(10):699-701. doi: 10.7326/M20-0696. Epub 2020 Mar 16. PMID: 32176272; PMCID: PMC7081176.
  13. Abdi M. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Iran: Actions and problems. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020;41(6):754-5. doi: 10.1017/ice.2020.86. PMID: 32192541; PMCID: PMC7137533.
  14. Arab-Mazar Z, Sah R, Rabaan AA, Dhama K, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Mapping the incidence of the COVID-19 hotspot in Iran–Implications for Travellers. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020. ;34:101630. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101630. Epub 2020 Mar 14. PMID: 32184130; PMCID: PMC7118655.
  15. Glasziou PP, Sanders S, Hoffmann T. Waste in covid-19 research. 2020;369:m1847. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1847. PMID: 32398241.
  16. Adib-Hajbaghery M, Adib M, Eshraghi Arani N. Evaluating the quality of randomized trials published in Persian nursing journals with more than 10 years of publishing using the CASP checklist. Iran Journal of Nursing. 2017;30(109):1-9. (Persian)
  17. Long HA, French DP, Brooks JM. Optimising the value of the critical appraisal skills programme (CASP) tool for quality appraisal in qualitative evidence synthesis. Research Methods in Medicine & Health Sciences. 2020 Sep;1(1):31-42. org/10.1177/2632084320947559.
  18. Tao P, Coates R, Maycock B. Investigating marital relationship in infertility: a systematic review of quantitative studies. J Reprod Infertil. 2012;13(2):71-80. PMID: 23926528; PMCID: PMC3719332.
  19. Tabibzadeh A, Zamani F, Laali A, Esghaei M, Tameshkel FS, Keyvani H, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Molecular and Phylogenetic analysis in COVID-19 patients: A preliminary report from Iran. Infect Genet Evol. 2020;84:104387. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104387. Epub 2020 May 30. PMID: 32485332; PMCID: PMC7832360.
  20. Taghrir MH, Borazjani R, Shiraly R. COVID-19 and Iranian medical students; a survey on their related-knowledge, preventive behaviors and risk perception. Arch Iran Med. 2020;23(4):249-254. doi: 10.34172/aim.2020.06. PMID: 32271598.
  21. Ahmadi M, Sharifi A, Dorosti S, Ghoushchi SJ, Ghanbari N. Investigation of effective climatology parameters on COVID-19 outbreak in Iran. Sci Total Environ. 2020;729:138705. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138705. Epub 2020 Apr 17. PMID: 32361432; PMCID: PMC7162759.
  22. Ammar A, Brach M, Trabelsi K, Chtourou H, Boukhris O, Masmoudi L, et al. Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey. Nutrients. 2020;12(6):1583. doi: 10.3390/nu12061583. PMID: 32481594; PMCID: PMC7352706.
  23. Moftakhar L, Mozhgan S, Safe MS. Exponentially increasing trend of infected patients with COVID-19 in Iran: a comparison of neural network and ARIMA forecasting models. Iran J Public Health. 2020;49(Suppl 1):92-100. doi: 10.18502/ijph.v49iS1.3675. PMID: 34268211; PMCID: PMC8266002.
  24. Moghanibashi-Mansourieh A. Assessing the anxiety level of Iranian general population during COVID-19 outbreak. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020 Jun;51:102076. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102076. Epub 2020 Apr 18. PMID: 32334409; PMCID: PMC7165107.
  25. Moradzadeh R. The challenges and considerations of community-based preparedness at the onset of COVID-19 outbreak in Iran, 2020. Epidemiol Infect. 2020;148:e82. doi: 10.1017/S0950268820000783. PMID: 32242790; PMCID: PMC7167485.
  26. Nikpouraghdam M, Farahani AJ, Alishiri G, Heydari S, Ebrahimnia M, Samadinia H, et al. Epidemiological characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in IRAN: A single center study. J Clin Virol. 2020;127:104378. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104378. Epub 2020 Apr 21. PMID: 32353762; PMCID: PMC7172806.
  27. Omrani-Nava V , Maleki I, Ahmadi A , Moosazadeh M , Hedayatizadeh-Omran A , et al. Evaluation of Hepatic Enzymes Changes and Association with Prognosis in COVID-19 Patients. Hepat Mon. 2020;20(4):e103179. doi:10.5812/hepatmon.103179.
  28. Soltani J, Sedighi I, Shalchi Z, Sami G, Moradveisi B, Nahidi S. Pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): An insight from west of Iran. North Clin Istanb. 2020;7(3):284-291. doi: 10.14744/nci.2020.90277. PMID: 32478302; PMCID: PMC7251275.
  29. Aghaali M, Kolifarhood G, Nikbakht R, Saadati HM, Hashemi Nazari SS. Estimation of the serial interval and basic reproduction number of COVID‐19 in Qom, Iran, and three other countries: A data‐driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67(6):2860-2868. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13656. Epub 2020 Jun 16. PMID: 32473049; PMCID: PMC7300937.
  30. Ayyoubzadeh SM, Ayyoubzadeh SM, Zahedi H, Ahmadi M, Kalhori SRN. Predicting COVID-19 incidence through analysis of google trends data in iran: data mining and deep learning pilot study. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020;6(2):e18828. doi: 10.2196/18828. PMID: 32234709; PMCID: PMC7159058.
  31. Bashirian S, Jenabi E, Khazaei S, Barati M, Karimi-Shahanjarini A, Zareian S, et al. Factors associated with preventive behaviours of COVID-19 among hospital staff in Iran in 2020: an application of the Protection Motivation Theory. J Hosp Infect. 2020;105(3):430-433. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.04.035. Epub 2020 Apr 28. PMID: 32360337; PMCID: PMC7194681.
  32. Ducournau F, Arianni M, Awwad S, Baur E-M, Beaulieu J-Y, Bouloudhnine M, et al. COVID-19: Initial experience of an international group of hand surgeons. Hand Surg Rehabil. 2020;39(3):159-166. doi: 10.1016/j.hansur.2020.04.001. Epub 2020 Apr 9. PMID: 32278932; PMCID: PMC7194873.
  33. Naghibzadeh M, Savari H, Savadi A, Saadati N, Mehrazin E. Developing an ultra-efficient microsatellite discoverer to find structural differences between SARS-CoV-1 and Covid-19. Inform Med Unlocked. 2020;19:100356. doi: 10.1016/j.imu.2020.100356. Epub 2020 May 21. Erratum in: Inform Med Unlocked. 2020;20:100435. PMID: 32501423; PMCID: PMC7241407.
  34. Bhagavathula AS, Aldhaleei WA, Rahmani J, Mahabadi MA, Bandari DK. Knowledge and perceptions of COVID-19 among health care workers: cross-sectional study. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020;6(2):e19160. doi: 10.2196/19160. PMID: 32320381; PMCID: PMC7193987.
  35. Enayatkhani M, Hasaniazad M, Faezi S, Gouklani H, Davoodian P, Ahmadi N, et al. Reverse vaccinology approach to design a novel multi-epitope vaccine candidate against COVID-19: An in silico study. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2021;39(8):2857-2872. doi: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1756411. Epub 2020 May 2. PMID: 32295479; PMCID: PMC7196925.
  36. Safavi F, Nourbakhsh B, Azimi AR. B-cell depleting therapies may affect susceptibility to acute respiratory illness among patients with multiple sclerosis during the early COVID-19 epidemic in Iran. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020;43:102195. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2020.102195. Epub 2020 May 13. PMID: 32460086; PMCID: PMC7219389.
  37. Ganji A, Farahani I, Khansarinejad B, Ghazavi A, Mosayebi G. Increased expression of CD8 marker on T-cells in COVID-19 patients.  Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2020;83:102437. doi: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2020.102437. Epub 2020 Apr 13. PMID: 32325421; PMCID: PMC7194879.
  38. Samadipour E, Ghardashi F. Factors Influencing Iranians' Risk Perception of Covid-19. Journal Mil Med. 2020;22(2):122-9. (Persian).
  39. Haseli S, Khalili N, Bakhshayeshkaram M, Taheri MS, Moharramzad Y. Lobar distribution of COVID-19 pneumonia based on chest computed tomography findings; a retrospective study. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020 ;8(1):e55. PMID: 32440666; PMCID: PMC7212068.
  40. Shadmehr M, Ramak N, Sangani A. The role of perceived mental stress in the health of suspected cases of COVID-19. Journal Mil Med. 2020;22(2):115-21. doi:30491/JMM.22.2.115. (Persian).
  41. Singh RK, Rani M, Bhagavathula AS, Sah R, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Kalita H, et al. Prediction of the COVID-19 pandemic for the top 15 affected countries: Advanced autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020;6(2):e19115. doi: 10.2196/19115. PMID: 32391801; PMCID: PMC7223426.
  42. Reiner Ž, Hatamipour M, Banach M, Pirro M, Al-Rasadi K, Jamialahmadi T, et al. Statins and the COVID-19 main protease: in silico evidence on direct interaction. Arch Med Sci. 2020;16(3):490-496. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2020.94655. PMID: 32399094; PMCID: PMC7212226.
  43. Khafaie MA, Rahim F. Cross-country comparison of case fatality rates of COVID-19/SARS-COV-2. Arch Med Sci. 2020;16(3):490-496. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2020.94655. PMID: 32399094; PMCID: PMC7212226.
  44. Maleki M, Mahmoudi MR, Wraith D, Pho K-H. Time series modelling to forecast the confirmed and recovered cases of COVID-19. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020;37:101742. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101742. Epub 2020 May 13. PMID: 33081974.
  45. Mirzaei M, Harismah K, Da'i M, Salarrezaei E, Roshandel Z. Screening efficacy of available HIV protease inhibitors on COVID-19 protease. Journal Mil Med. 2020;22(2):100-7. doi:10.30491/JMM.22.2.100.(Persian).
  46. Moftakhar L, Seif M. The exponentially increasing rate of patients infected with COVID-19 in Iran. Arch Iran Med. 2020;23(4):235-238. doi: 10.34172/aim.2020.03. PMID: 32271595.
  47. Yousefpour A, Jahanshahi H, Bekiros S. Optimal policies for control of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Chaos Solitons Fractals. 2020;136:109883. doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2020.109883. Epub 2020 May 16. PMID: 32427205; PMCID: PMC7229919.
  48. Zareie B, Roshani A, Mansournia MA, Rasouli MA, Moradi G. A model for COVID-19 prediction in Iran based on China parameters. Arch Iran Med. 2020 Apr 1;23(4):244-248. doi: 10.34172/aim.2020.05. PMID: 32271597.
  49. Zolfaghari Emameh R, Nosrati H, Taheri RA. Combination of biodata mining and computational modelling in identification and characterization of ORF1ab polyprotein of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from Oronasopharynx of an Iranian patient. Biol Proced Online. 2020;22:8. doi: 10.1186/s12575-020-00121-9. PMID: 32336957; PMCID: PMC7171442.
  50. Moein ST, Hashemian SM, Mansourafshar B, Khorram-Tousi A, Tabarsi P, Doty RL. Smell dysfunction: a biomarker for COVID-19. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020;10(8):944-950. doi: 10.1002/alr.22587. Epub 2020 Jun 18. PMID: 32301284; PMCID: PMC7262123.
  51. Mardani R, Vasmehjani AA, Zali F, Gholami A, Nasab SDM, Kaghazian H, et al. Laboratory parameters in detection of COVID-19 patients with positive RT-PCR; a diagnostic accuracy study. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020;8(1):e43. PMID: 32259132; PMCID: PMC7130449.
  52. Ardakani AA, Kanafi AR, Acharya UR, Khadem N, Mohammadi A. Application of deep learning technique to manage COVID-19 in routine clinical practice using CT images: Results of 10 convolutional neural networks. Comput Biol Med. 2020;121:103795. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2020.103795. Epub 2020 Apr 30. PMID: 32568676; PMCID: PMC7190523.
  53. Mohammadzadeh A. Effectiveness of electronic health care and drug monitoring program to prevent COVID-19 and adherence to therapeutic regimen in patients with ischemic heart disease-a pilot study. Journal Mil Med. 2020;22(2):139-46.doi: 10.30491/JMM.22.2.139. (Persian).
  54. Abdollahpour S, Khadivzadeh T. Improving the quality of care in pregnancy and childbirth with coronavirus (COVID-19): a systematic review. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2022;35(8):1601-1609. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1759540. Epub 2020 May 14. PMID: 32408776.
  55. AminJafari A, Ghasemi S. The possible of immunotherapy for COVID-19: A systematic review. Int Immunopharmacol. 2020;83:106455. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106455. Epub 2020 Apr 2. PMID: 32272396; PMCID: PMC7128194.
  56. Asadi-Pooya AA, Simani L. Central nervous system manifestations of COVID-19: a systematic review. J Neurol Sci. 2020;413:116832. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2020.116832. Epub 2020 Apr 11. PMID: 32299017; PMCID: PMC7151535.
  57. Banaei M, Ghasemi V, Saei Ghare Naz M, Kiani Z, Rashidi-Fakari F, Banaei S, et al. Obstetrics and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with covid-19: A systematic review. Iran J Public Health. 2020;49(Suppl 1):38-47. doi: 10.18502/ijph.v49iS1.3668. PMID: 34268204; PMCID: PMC8266025.
  58. Borges do Nascimento IJ, Cacic N, Abdulazeem HM, von Groote TC, Jayarajah U, Weerasekara I, et al. Novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in humans: a scoping review and meta-analysis. J Clin Med. 2020;9(4):941. doi: 10.3390/jcm9040941. PMID: 32235486; PMCID: PMC7230636.
  59. Couper K, Taylor-Phillips S, Grove A, Freeman K, Osokogu O, Court R, et al. COVID-19 in cardiac arrest and infection risk to rescuers: a systematic review. 2020;151:59-66. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.04.022. Epub 2020 Apr 20. PMID: 32325096; PMCID: PMC7169929.
  60. Emami A, Javanmardi F, Pirbonyeh N, Akbari A. Prevalence of underlying diseases in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020;8(1):e35. PMID: 32232218; PMCID: PMC7096724.
  61. Kasraeian M, Zare M, Vafaei H, Asadi N, Faraji A, Bazrafshan K, et al. COVID-19 pneumonia and pregnancy; a systematic review and meta-analysis.  J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2022;35(9):1652-1659. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1763952. Epub 2020 May 19. PMID: 32429786.
  62. Miri SM, Roozbeh F, Omranirad A, Alavian SM. Panic of buying toilet papers: a historical memory or a horrible truth? Systematic review of gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19. Hepat Mon. 2020;20(3).  doi:10.5812/hepatmon.102729.
  63. Muhidin S, Moghadam ZB, Vizheh M. Analysis of maternal coronavirus infections and neonates born to mothers with 2019-nCoV; a systematic review. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020;8(1):e49. PMID: 32440660; PMCID: PMC7211430.
  64. Panahi L, Amiri M, Pouy S. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infection in newborns and pediatrics: a systematic review. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020;8(1):e50. PMID: 32440661; PMCID: PMC7212072.
  65. Parohan M, Yaghoubi S, Seraji A. Liver injury is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) infection: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of retrospective studies. Hepatol Res. 2020;50(8):924-935. doi: 10.1111/hepr.13510. Epub 2020 Jun 25. PMID: 32386449; PMCID: PMC7273097.
  66. Sokouti M, Sadeghi R, Pashazadeh S, Eslami S, Sokouti M, Ghojazadeh M, et al. Comparative global epidemiological investigation of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV diseases using meta-MUMS tool through incidence, mortality, and recovery rates. Arch Med Res. 2020;51(5):458-463. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.04.005. Epub 2020 Apr 15. PMID: 32331787; PMCID: PMC7158781.
  67. Yousefifard M, Zali A, Ali KM, Neishaboori AM, Zarghi A, Hosseini M, et al. Antiviral therapy in management of COVID-19: a systematic review on current evidence. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020;8(1):e45. PMID: 32309809; PMCID: PMC7156260.
  68. Yousefifard M, Zali A, Zarghi A, Madani Neishaboori A, Hosseini M, Safari S. Non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs in management of COVID‐19; a systematic review on current evidence. Int J Clin Pract. 2020;74(9):e13557. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.13557. Epub 2020 Jun 14. PMID: 32460369; PMCID: PMC7267090.
  69. Ye Z, Wang Y, Colunga-Lozano LE, Prasad M, Tangamornsuksan W, Rochwerg B, et al. Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in COVID-19 based on evidence for COVID-19, other coronavirus infections, influenza, community-acquired pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cmaj. 2020;192(27):E756-E67.  doi: 10.1503/cmaj.200645. Epub 2020 May 14. PMID: 32409522; PMCID: PMC7828900.
  70. Raynaud M, Zhang H, Louis K, Goutaudier V, Wang J, Dubourg Q, et al. COVID-19-related medical research: a meta-research and critical appraisal. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2021;21(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s12874-020-01190-w. PMID: 33397292; PMCID: PMC7780085.
  71. Arab-Zozani M, Hassanipour S. Features and limitations of LitCovid hub for quick access to literature about COVID-19. Balkan Med J. 2020;37(4):231-232. doi: 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2020.2020.4.67. Epub 2020 Apr 15. Erratum in: Balkan Med J. 2020 Aug 11;37(5):303. PMID: 32292015; PMCID: PMC7285668.
  72. Jung RG, Di Santo P, Clifford C, Prosperi-Porta G, Skanes S, Hung A, et al. Methodological quality of COVID-19 clinical research. Nat Commun. 2021;12(1):943. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-21220-5. PMID: 33574258; PMCID: PMC7878793.
  73. Alexander PE, Debono VB, Mammen MJ, Iorio A, Aryal K, Deng D, et al. COVID-19 coronavirus research has overall low methodological quality thus far: case in point for chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. J Clin Epidemiol. 2020;123:120-126. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2020.04.016. Epub 2020 Apr 21. PMID: 32330521; PMCID: PMC7194626.