Document Type : Review Articles


1 Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

4 Department of Nutrition, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran



Background: Improper use of antibiotics and not paying attention to withdrawal time causes antibiotics to enter the milk, which can cause allergies in humans and cause antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria in the long run, so quality and hygienic milk control is essential.
Methods: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic residues in milk as a systematic review and metaanalysis from 2004 to 2021 for 15 years in Iran. The data were collected from four international search databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar, and four Iranian databases, including SID, MagIran, Civilica, and IranDoc.
Results: After reviews of 314 studies, 38 were finally selected, and the information was recorded and analyzed in Stata software. The results of this study show that the residual prevalence of antibiotics in milk using the screening method was 28% (CI: 0.34-0.22). The residual rates of antibiotics using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were 43% (CI: 0.26-0.59) and 27% (CI: 0.05-0.49), respectively.
Conclusion: The data obtained from the meta-analysis show that despite various reports of a quantitative amount of antibiotic residue in milk, the average amount in the ELISA method was 16.98 ppm. Although the prevalence of antibiotics in Iran is relatively high, a quantitative amount is optimal. Also, since the use of antibiotics in livestock is almost inevitable, proper withdrawal time of antibiotics can play an important role in preventing the release of antibiotic residues in milk.


  1. Karim G, Kiyayi SM, Rokni N, Razavi Rouhani Contamination of milk with antibiotic residues during the last forty years in Iran. Food hyg. 2012;1 1(1), 23-30.
  2. Dabbagh Moghaddam A, Tayebi L, Falahatpisheh H, Mahmoudian M, Kowsari N, Akbarein H, et al. Evaluation of the tetracycline residues in pasteurized milks distributed in Tehran by HPLC method. Sci Res J Uni Med Sci Army Islam Rep Iran. 2014 4 (11).
  3. Asghari M. Investigation of antibiotic residue in raw and pasteurized milk in Semnan province. First Sci Res Conf Iranian Food Sci Indust; Tehran: 2016.
  4. Zandieh Moradi R, Soltan Dallal MM. Evaluating the amount of antibiotic residues in raw milk samples obtained from cows in Borujerd city. JJUMS. 2018;4(2):193-200.
  5. Mohammadzadeh M, Montaseri M, Hosseinzadeh S, Majlesi M, Berizi E, Zare M, et al. Antibiotic residues in poultry tissues in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Res. 2022; 204, 112038. doi: 10.1016/j.envres. 2021.112038.
  6. Bahmani K, Shahbazi Y, Nikousefat Z. Monitoring and risk assessment of tetracycline residues in foods of animal origin. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2019;29(3):441-448. doi: 1007/s10068-019-00665-x.
  7. Karamibonari AR, Movassagh MH,. Determination of tylosin residues by ELISA in pasteurized milk marketed in Tabriz. Glob Vet. 2011; 6(6): 527-529. .
  8. Rahimi E, Shakerian A, Asadi A. Determination of sulfonamide antibiotic residues in raw milk, meat and eggs by ELISA. New Navid. 2017;20(63):1-8. doi: 22038/NNJ.2017.8989.
  9. Karami-Osboo R, Javidnia K, Kobarfard F. Simultaneous Chloramphenicol and Florfenicol Determination by A Validated DLLME-HPLC-UV Method in Pasteurized Milk. Iran J Pharmaceut Research (IJPR). 2016: 15 (3): 361-368. PMCID: PMC5149023.
  10. The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools for Use in JBI Systematic Reviews Checklist for Analytical Cross Sectional Studies 2017; Available from: http://joannabriggsorg/research/critical-appraisal-toolshtml.
  11. Movassagh MH, Karami AR. Determination of beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow raw milk by beta star test. Glob Vet. 2011;6:366-368.
  12. Aalipour F, Mirlohi M, Jalali M, Azadbakht L. Dietary exposure to tetracycline residues through milk consumption in Iran. J Environment Health Sci Eng. 2015;13:80. doi: 10.1186/s40201-015-0235-6.
  13. Mohamadi Sani A, Nikpooyan H, Moshiri R. Aflatoxin M1 contamination and antibiotic residue in milk in Khorasan province, Iran. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48(8-9):2130-2132. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.05.015.
  14. Mohamadi Sani A, Khezri M, Malekinezhad S. Detection of tetracycline and sulfonamides residues in raw milk of Mashhad by Competitive ELISA method. J Innovat Food Sci Technol. 2013; 7(3) 77-83.
  15. Moghadam M, Amiri M, Riabi H, Riabi H. Evaluation of Antibiotic Residues in Pasteurized and Raw Milk Distributed in the South of Khorasan-e Razavi Province, Iran. J Clinic Diag Res. 2016;10:31-35. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/21034.9034.
  16. Alimohammadi M, Askari SG, Azghadi NM, Taghavimanesh V, Mohammadimoghadam T, Bidkhori M, et al. Antibiotic residues in the raw and pasteurized milk produced in Northeastern Iran examined by the four-plate test (FPT) method. Int J Food Pro. 2020;23(1):1248-1255. doi: 10.1080/10942912.2020.1800032.
  17. Rassouli A, Zamani Z, Bahonar A, Shams GH, Abdolmaleki Z. A Trace Analysis of Oxytetracycline and Tetracycline Residues in Pasturizes Milk Supplied in Tehran: A One-Year Study (Aprill 2011-March 2012). Iran J Vet Med. 2014;8(2):119-123.
  18. Ghanavi Z, Mollayi S, Eslami Z. Comparison Between the Amount of Penicillin G Residue in Raw and Pasteurized Milk in Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2013;6(7):e12724. doi: 10.3934/agrfood.2022031.
  19. Mahmoudi R, Asadpour R, Alamoti P, Golchin A, Kiyani R, Pour M, et al. Raw cow milk quality: Relationship between antibiotic residue and somatic cell Int Food Res J. 2013;20:3347-3350.
  20. Mollaei A, Hamidian Shirazi M, Hamidian Shirazi AR. Comparative Evaluation of Antibiotic Residues in Raw Milk Samples by ECLIPS 50 and TWINE SENSOR kits in Sepidan and Beyza, Iran. J Health Sci Sur Sys. 2018;6(2):105-109. doi: 10.30476/jhsss.2019.83392.1027.
  21. Movassagh MH, Karami AR. Determination of antibiotic residues in bovine milk in Tabriz, Iran. Global Vet. 2010;5:195-7.
  22. Mesgari Abbasi M, Babaei H, Ansarin M, Nourdadgar A-OS, Nemati M. Simultaneous Determination of Tetracyclines Residues in Bovine Milk Samples by Solid Phase Extraction and HPLC-FL Method. Adv Pharm Bul. 2011;1(1):34-39. doi: 10.5681/apb.2011.005.
  23. Mottaghianpour E, Aminzare M, Banikhademi S, Hassanzadazar H. Direct Screening of Antibiotic Residue in Pasturized, Sterilized and Raw Milk Supplied in Zanjan Market, Iran. Studia Universitatis Vasile Goldis Arad, Seria Stiintele Vietii. 2018;28:22-28.
  24. Manafi M, Hesari J, Rafat SA. Evaluation of antibiotic residue in raw and pasteurized milk of East Azerbaijan province by Delvotest method. Food Ind Res. 2011;3.20(2):125-131.
  25. Movassagh M, Karamibonari A. Investigation of neomycin residue in pasteurized milk produced in a number of factories in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Food hyg. 2015;4(3):43-49.
  26. Mahmoudi R, Vaghef R, Amini K, Mir H. Study of health quality of raw milk in Ilam province. 21st National Congress of Food Science and Technology of Iran; Shiraz: undefined; 2014.
  27. Movassagh M. Identification of antibiotic residues in raw cow milk in Ilkhchi region (southwest of Tabriz) in spring 2009. Food Sci Nut. 2013;9(3):89-94.
  28. Kermani M, Yazdani A, Asadzadeh S, Rajabizadeh A, Nikoozadeh H, Firouzeh N, et al. The Aflatoxin M1 level and Antibiotic Residues in raw milk supplied across the Mcity of Bojnurd in 2016. Health Dev J. 2019;8(1):72-82. doi: 10.22034/
  29. Zayerzadeh E, Koohi MK, Fardipoor A, Rashedi H. Study of enrofloxacin residue in eggs using high performance liquid chromatography. Iranian J Food Sci Technol. 2011; 8(28): 67-71.
  30. Fallahraad A, Mohsenzadeh  M, Asadpour H. Determination of gentamicin residue in raw milk delivered to Mashhad pasteurized milk factory and pasteurized milk obtained from the same raw milk. Agri Sci Technol. 2007;20(7):183-189.
  31. Arabchadegani M, Gharebash  A, Mostafalou  Y, Abazari H. Comparison of antibiotic residues in milk produced by industrial and traditional farms in Chadegan city of Isfahan province.  8th National Conference on Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resources; Tehran: 2018.
  32. Nikbakht B, Heydarzadeh M, Haji Mohammadi A, Zahedi R. Investigation of antibiotic residues in milk produced by traditional farms in Zahedan. Second National Conference on Food Science and Industry; Qouchan: 2014.
  33. Habibi N. Investigation of antibiotic residues in raw milk of Sanandaj. Clinic Trial large livestock. 2011;4(11):57-62.
  34. Sayyadi M, Mohammadpourfard I, Nematollahi  Evaluation of antibiotic residues in raw and pasteurized milk of Fars province by immunochromatography in 2017. First National Congress on Food Hygiene. 2018.
  35. Rezvanollah P, Fazlara  Evaluation of oxytetracycline antibiotic residue in pasteurized milk samples by ELISA method.  Second National Conference on Biology Sciences; Damghan: 2017.
  36. Mahmoudi R, Norian R, Gajabeygi P. Survey of antibiotic residues in raw milk samples in Qazvin (2012). JQUMS. 2014;18(1):45-52.
  37. Keshavarzi M, Yasini Ardakani A. Comparison and evaluation of the presence of antibiotic residues in raw milk of Kerman city by coupon test method in summer and autumn seasons. National Conference on New Achievements in the Food and Healthy Nutrition Industry. 2017.
  38. Bahreynipour A, Mohsenzadeh  Search for antimicrobial residues in raw and pasteurized milk by yogurt culture method. Iranian J Vet Med. 2010;5(3):5-11.
  39. Ghaemmaghami SS, Tajkarimi M, Salehnezhad A, Poursoltani H. Evaluation of drug residues of chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline in raw milk in some parts of Iran. 18th National Congress of Food Industry; Mashhad. 2009.
  40. Akbari Kishi S, Asmar M, Mirpour M. The Study of Antibiotic Residues in Raw and Pasturized Milk in Gilan Province. Iranian J Med Microbiol. 2017;11(3):71-77.
  41. Rahim Abadi E, Asadpour Y, Sayehban  Examination of oxytetracycline and tetracycline antibiotic residues by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from milk collection centers in Guilan province. Iranian J Vet Med. 2017;12(1):118-123. doi: 10.22055/IVJ.2016.14715.
  42. Zarangush Z, Mahdavi S. Determination of Antibiotic Residues in Pasteurized and Raw Milk in Maragheh and Bonab Counties by Four Plate test (FPT) Method. Ilam Uni Med Sci. 2016;24(5):48-54. doi: 18869/acadpub.sjimu.24.5.48.
  43. Egger M, Smith GD, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ. 1997;315(7109):629. doi: 1136/bmj.315.7109.629.
  44. Said Ahmed A, El-Zubeir I, Owni IEM, Ahmed M-K. Assessment of microbial loads and antibiotic residues in milk supply in Khartoum State, Sudan. Res J Dairy Sci. 2008;2:36-
  45. Khaskheli M, Malik RS, Arain MA, Soomro AH, Arain HH. Detection of β - Lactam Antibiotic Residues in Market Milk. Pakistan J Nut. 2008;7 (5):682-685. doi: 10.3923/pjn.2008.682.685.
  46. Kang'ethe EK, Aboge G, Arimi SM, Kanja La, Omore A, McDermott JJ. Investigation of risk of consuming marketed milk with antimicrobial residues in Kenya. Food Control. 2004;16:349-355. org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.03.015