Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environment, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad university, Ardabil, Iran

2 Department of Agriculture, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran


Background: Failure to observe proper hygiene principles of water and swimming pool environment is effective in causing health problems and transmission of infectious diseases to swimmers. This study aimed to analyze the level of Escherichia coli and Heterotrophic Plate Count in mineral pools in Sarein.
Methods: For this purpose, sampling was performed in each season, and the samples were tested according to the standard method. Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine the normality or abnormality of the data. Then, through ANOVA, the differences between the seasons and the pools were compared in terms of the studied parameters.
Results: The results of the analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference between the spas in terms of the measured parameters. A comparison of the average data showed that the amount of contamination of mineral spas during the seasons with E. coli was more than the allowable value announced by the National Standard Organization of Iran. The amount of residual chlorine in all samples was zero and the pH was equal to 6.8. The results of principal component analysis showed that mineral spas No. 6, 2, and 11 had the highest HPC (Heterotrophic Plate count) and pH and 9 Cheshmeh, Ershad, and Ghahveh Sui mineral spas based on the second component had the highest E. coli; No. 7 had the lowest E. coli.
Conclusion: Finally, it can be concluded that the cause of the contamination of mineral swimming pools in Sarein city is the high volume of passengers and the lack of proper sanitary management of swimming pools.


Behnam Afsar (Google Scholar)
Ebrahim Fataei (Google Scholar)


  1. Khalil A. Screening and characterization of thermophilic bacteria (lipase, cellulase and amylase producers) from hot springs in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 2011;9(2):672-5. doi: 10.1234/4.2011.2187.
  2. Shajahan S, Ganesh Moorthy I, Sivakumar N, Selvakumar G. Statistical modeling and optimization of cellulase production by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM 5556 isolated from the hot spring, Maharashtra, India. Journal of King Saud University-Science. 2017;29(3):302-10. doi:10.1016/j.jksus.2016.08.001.
  3. Valiallahi J, Moradi S. Evaluating the Effects of Agricultural Activities on Nitrate Contamination at the Kamfirooz District, Shiraz, Iran. Anthropogenic Pollution. 2020;4(1):24-35. doi: 10.22034/AP.2020.1882082.1055.
  4. Kaczmarczyk M, Tomaszewska B, Operacz A. Sustainable utilization of low enthalpy geothermal resources to electricity generation through a cascade system. Energies. 2020;13(10):2495. doi: 10.3390/en13102495.
  5. Petterson S, Li Q, Ashbolt N. Screening Level Risk Assessment (SLRA) of human health risks from faecal pathogens associated with a Natural Swimming Pond (NSP). Water Research. 2021;188:116501. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2020.116501. PMID: 33091804. PMCID: PMC7535628.
  6. Fewtrell L, Kay D. Recreational water and infection: a review of recent findings. Current environmental health reports. 2015;2:85-94. doi: 10.1007/s40572-014-0036-6. PMID: 25821715. PMCID: PMC4371824.
  7. Dwight RH, Fernandez LM, Baker DB, Semenza JC, Olson BH. Estimating the economic burden from illnesses associated with recreational coastal water pollution—a case study in Orange County, California. Journal of environmental management. 2005;76(2):95-103. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.11.017.
  8. Ghanavat Amani M, Jalilzadeh Yengejeh R. Comparison of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Removal Efficiency in Aquatic Environments Using Silver and Copper Nanoparticles. Journal of Health Sciences & Surveillance System. 2021;9(2):72-80. doi: 10.30476/jhsss.2021.88646.1151.
  9. Kazemi Noredinvand B, Takdastan A, Jalilzadeh Yengejeh R. Removal of organic matter from drinking water by single and dual media filtration: a comparative pilot study. Desalination and water treatment. 2016;57(44):20792-9. doi: 10.1080/19443994.2015.1110718.
  10. Mohammadi Aloucheh R, Baris O, Asadi A, Gholam Zadeh S, Kharat Sadeghi M. Characterization of Aquatic Beetles Shells (Hydraenidae family) derived chitosan and its application in order to eliminate the environmental pollutant bacterial. Anthropogenic Pollution. 2019;3(2):43-8. doi: 10.22034/ap.2019.668483.
  11. Suppes LM, Canales RA, Gerba CP, Reynolds KA. Cryptosporidium risk from swimming pool exposures. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2016;219(8):915-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.07.001. PMID: 27432615.
  12. Yousefi M, Rahmani K, Jalilzadeh Yengejeh R, Sabzalipour S, Goudarzi G. Green Synthesis of Zero Iron Nanoparticles and its Application in the Degradation of Metronidazole. Journal of Health Sciences & Surveillance System. 2021;9(1):66-70. doi: 10.30476/jhsss.2020.88584.1146.
  13. Fathi H, Mirabbasi SB, Pournoori M. Investigating the place of international law in the protection of the marine environment against Transportation of hazardous chemicals. Anthropogenic Pollution. 2022;6(1):55-65. doi: 10.22034/AP.2022.1942517.1120.
  14. Jalalzadeh A, Rabieifar HR, Vosoughifar H, Razmkhah A, Fataei E. Investigation of daily waste load allocation in Zarrineh-rud river for environmental management of cold-water fish species. Anthropogenic Pollution. 2022;6(1):36-46. doi: 10.22034/ap.2022.1941381.1118.
  15. Mahdi A, Karimi D, Farshchi P, Panahi M. Waste Water Pollution zoning of sensitive coastal-marine areas with an environmental protection approach (Study area: Boujagh International Park and International Wetland). Anthropogenic Pollution. 2021;5(1):16-30. doi: 10.22034/ap.2021.1910782.1080.
  16. Rasool FN, Saavedra MA, Pamba S, Perold V, Mmochi AJ, Maalim M, et al. Isolation and characterization of human pathogenic multidrug resistant bacteria associated with plastic litter collected in Zanzibar. J Hazard Mater. 2021;405:124591. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124591. PMID: 33301968.
  17. Chalmers RM. Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita. 2012;48:429-46. PMID: 23247139. doi: 10.4415/ANN_12_04_10.
  18. Dale K, Kirk M, Sinclair M, Hall R, Leder K. Reported waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease in Australia are predominantly associated with recreational exposure. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2010;34(5):527-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2010.00602.x. PMID: 21040184.
  19. Graciaa DS, Cope JR, Roberts VA, Cikesh BL, Kahler AM, Vigar M, et al. Outbreaks Associated Untreated with Recreational Water - United States, 2000-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(25):701-6. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6725a1. PMID: 29953425. PMCID: PMC6023190.
  20. Pond K. Water recreation and disease: plausibility of associated infections: acute effects, sequelae, and mortality. 2013. doi: 10.2166/9781780405827.
  21. Abbasi A, Taghavi L, Sarai Tabrizi M. Qualitative Zoning of Groundwater to Assessment Suitable Drinking Water Using GIS Software in Mohammad Shahr, Meshkinshahr, and Mahdasht in Alborz Province. Anthropogenic Pollution. 2021;5(1):138-49. doi: 10.22034/AP.2021.1907787.1076.
  22. Ashbolt NJ. Microbial contamination of drinking water and human health from community water systems. Current environmental health reports. 2015;2:95-106. doi: 10.1007/s40572-014-0037-5. PMID: 25821716.
  23. Babaei AA, Ghanbari F, Yengejeh RJ. Simultaneous use of iron and copper anodes in photoelectro-Fenton process: concurrent removals of dye and cadmium. Water science and technology. 2017;75(7):1732-42. doi: 10.2166/wst.2017.049. PMID: 28402315.
  24. Jalili S. Water Quality Assessment Based on HFB I& BMWP Index In Karoon River, Khouzestan Provience,(Northwest of Persian Gulf). Anthropogenic Pollution. 2020;4(1):36-49. doi: 10.22034/AP.2020.1877482.1047.
  25. Abbaspour M, Javid AH, Jalilzadeh Yengjeh R, Hassani AH, Mostafavi PG. The biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by indigenous Bacillus cereus strain RJ1 isolated from soil. Petroleum Science and Technology. 2013; 31(18):1835-41. doi: 10.1080/10916466.2011.611562.
  26. Gashtasbi F, Yengejeh RJ, Babaei AA. Adsorption of vancomycin antibiotic from aqueous solution using an activated carbon impregnated magnetite composite. Desalination and water treatment. 2017;88:286-97. doi: 10.5004/dwt.2017.21455.
  27. Jalilzadeh Yengejeh R, Pourjafarian V, Afrous A, Gholami A, Maktabi P, Sharifi R. Studying Bacillus cereus's ability to biodegrade crude oil in hot areas. Petroleum Science and Technology. 2017;35(3):287-91. doi: 10.1080/10916466.2014.941068.
  28. Jalilzadeh Yengejeh R, Sekhavatjou MS, Maktabi P, ARBAB SN, Khadivi S, Pourjafarian V. The Biodegradation of Crude Oil by Bacillus subtilis Isolated from Contaminated Soil in Hot Weather Areas. International Journal of Environmental Research. 2014;8(2):509-14. doi: 10.22059/ijer.2014.744.
  29. Kordestani B, Takdastan A, Yengejeh RJ, Neisi AK. Photo-Fenton oxidative of pharmaceutical wastewater containing meropenem and ceftriaxone antibiotics: influential factors, feasibility, and biodegradability studies. Toxin reviews. 2018. doi: 10.1080/15569543.2018.1520261.
  30. Shokri R, Yengejeh RJ, Babaei AA, Derikvand E, Almasi A.. UV activation of hydrogen peroxide for removal of azithromycin antibiotic from aqueous solution: determination of optimum conditions by response surface methodology. Toxin Reviews. 2020;39(3):284-91. doi: 10.1080/15569543.2018.1517803.
  31. Zangeneh A, Sabzalipour S, Takdatsan A, Jalilzadeh Yengejeh R, Abullatif Khafaie M. Ammonia removal form municipal wastewater by air stripping process: An experimental study. South African Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2021;36:134-41. doi: 10.1016/j.sajce.2021.03.001.
  32. Aharia SM, Yangejehb RJ, Mahvic AH, Shahamatd YD, Takdastane A. A new method for the removal of ammonium from drinking water using hybrid method of modified zeolites/catalytic ozonation. Desalin Water Treat. 2019;170:148-57. doi: 10.5004/dwt.2019.24619.
  33. Farsani MH, Yengejeh RJ, Mirzahosseini AH, Monavari M, Hassani AH, Mengelizadeh N. Effective leachate treatment by a pilot-scale submerged electro-membrane bioreactor. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022;29(6):9218-31. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-16196-0. PMID: 34494194.
  34. Mehrdoost A, Jalilzadeh Yengejeh R, Mohammadi MK, Babaei AA, Haghighatzadeh A. Comparative Analysis of UV-assisted Removal of Azithromycin and Cefixime from Aqueous Solution Using PAC/Fe/Si/Zn Nanocomposite. Journal of Health Sciences & Surveillance System. 2021;9(1):39-49. doi: 10.30476/jhsss.2020.88564.1149.
  35. Mehrdoost A, Yengejeh RJ, Mohammadi MK, Haghighatzadeh A, Babaei AA. Adsorption removal and photocatalytic degradation of azithromycin from aqueous solution using PAC/Fe/Ag/Zn nanocomposite. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022;29(22):33514-27. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-18158-y. PMID: 35029828.
  36. Nikpour B, Jalilzadeh Yengejeh R, Takdastan A, Hassani AH, Zazouli MA. The investigation of biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorous from domestic wastewater by inserting anaerobic/anoxic holding tank in the return sludge line of MLE-OSA modified system. J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2020;18(1):1-10. doi: 10.1007/s40201-019-00419-1. PMID: 32399216. PMCID: PMC7203377.
  37. Hussain S, Aslam MU, Javed M, Zahra M, Ejaz H, Kubra KA, Mushtaq I. Impact of Climatic Changes and Global Warming on Water Availability. Anthropogenic Pollution. 2021;5(2):57-66. doi: 10.22034/ap.2021.1926893.1100.
  38. Salehi S, Yari M, Rosen MA. Exergoeconomic comparison of solar-assisted absorption heat pumps, solar heaters and gas boiler systems for district heating in Sarein Town, Iran. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2019;153:409-25. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.03.022.
  39. Sadeghi H, Bagheri Ardebilian P, Rostami R, Poureshgh Y, Fazlzadeh M. Biological and physicochemical quality of thermal spring pools, with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus: Sarein tourist town, Ardabil. Journal of Environmental Health Enginering. 2014;1(3):203-15.
  40. Feyzolahpour M, Einali J, Gasemlu H. Investigating the geotouristic risks of spa springs with emphasis on natural and human dangers in the study area between Sarein and Ardebil in the northwest of Iran. AUC GEOGRAPHICA. 2019;54(2):194-206. doi: 10.14712/23361980.2019.17.
  41. Seyedmousavi S, Fataei E, Hashemi S, Geramishoare M. Fungal Flora in Mineral Swimming Pools of Sarein-Iran (2005). J Ardabil Univ Med Sci. 2007;7(2):146-54.
  42. Farhadi H, Fataei E, Kharrat Sadeghi M. Kharrat Sadeghi, The Relationship Between Nitrate Distribution in Groundwater and Agricultural Landuse (Case study: Ardabil Plain, Iran). Anthropogenic Pollution Journal. 2020;4(1):50-6. doi: 10.22034/AP.2020.1885788.1059.
  43. Zaeimdar M, Tavakoli F, Lahijanian A. The Impact of Environmental Education on The Environmental Behavior of Elementary School Students (Case Study: Students in Tehran). Anthropogenic Pollution. 2019;3(2):37-42. doi: 10.22034/AP.2019.668482.
  44. Ramazani ME, Mosaferi M, Abedi S. Development of Management Strategies for the Urban Environment with SWOT Approach: A Case Study in Iran. Anthropogenic Pollution. 2017;1(1):25-33. doi: 10.22034/APJ.2017.1.1.2533.
  45. Vukić Lušić D, Maestro N, Cenov A, Lušić D, Smolčić K, Tolić S, et al. Occurrence of P. aeruginosa in Water Intended for Human Consumption and in Swimming Pool Water. Environments. 2021;8(12):132. doi: 10.3390/environments8120132.
  46. Yazdanbakhsh AR, Mohseni bandpei A, Bay, A Sadeghi. The relationship between physicochemical and microbial indicators in Jacuzzi water and swimming pools in Golestan Province. Journal of Research in Environmental Health. 2016;2(1):71-80. doi: 10.22038/jreh.2021.7068.
  47. Masoud G, Abbass A, Abaza A, Hazzah W. Bacteriological quality of some swimming pools in Alexandria with special reference to Staphylococcus aureus. Environ Monit Assess. 2016;188(7):412. doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5427-8. PMID: 27312255.
  48. Leoni E, Legnani P, Guberti E, Masotti A. Risk of infection associated with microbiological quality of public swimming pools in Bologna, Italy. Public Health. 1999;113(5):227-32. doi: 10.1038/ PMID: 10557116.
  49. Abd El-Salam MM. Assessment of water quality of some swimming pools: a case study in Alexandria, Egypt. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2012;184:7395-406. PMID: 22258741. doi: 10.1007/s10661-011-2508-6.