Document Type: Original Article


1 Research Center for Health Sciences, Institute of Health, Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3 Health and Environmental Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

4 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


Background: Health care waste (HCW) management is highly important and has received special attention from the authorities and people.
Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the management of HCW in general and specialized hospitals of Tabriz, Iran.
Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, field investigations were conducted on gathering data on HCW management activities using the WHO questionnaire including 100 questions through observation.
Results: This study indicated that the total in-use beds in the studied hospitals were 3953 beds. The total amount of generating wastes in the hospitals was 13349.5 kg day-1, of which 10059 kg day-1 (75.4%) was general waste and the remaining 24.6% (3290.5 kg day-1) was categorized as medical waste. The medical waste was categorized further into infectious (3002.50 kg day-1), sharp (171.80 kg day-1), chemical (63.15 kg day-1), and pathological (52.55 kg day-1) wastes. In general and specialized hospitals, 56% and 31% of the waste separation was at a good level, respectively. The results showed that the chemical process (37.5%) was the mostly used method for the treatment of medical waste in the studied hospitals.
Conclusions: Generally, the rate of waste generation in general hospitals was more than that in specialized hospitals. Higher waste generation in general hospitals can be due to the fact that in these hospitals the amount and diversity of the health services provided were more than specialized hospitals. Good separation of general wastes from medical ones, proper health waste management, and training of staff for correct segregation of wastes can lead to a reduction of treatment charges.


  1.  Minoglou M, Gerassimidou S, Komilis D. Healthcare waste generation worldwide and its dependence on socio-economic and environmental factors. Sustainability. 2017;9(2):220.
  2. Asgari A, Ghorbanian T, Yousefi N, Dadashzadeh D, Khalili F, Bagheri A, et al. Quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran. J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng. 2017;15(1):14.
  3. Ali M, Wang W, Chaudhry N, Geng Y. Hospital waste management in developing countries: A mini review. Waste Manag Res. 2017;35(6):581-92.
  4. Damani N, Koolivand A, Sadat M, Mahvi AH, Mazloomi S. Hospital waste generation and management in some provinces of Iran. Toxicol Environ Chem. 2013;95(6):962-9.
  5. Ali M, Wang W, Chaudhry N. Management of wastes from hospitals: A case study in Pakistan. Waste Manag Res. 2016;34(1):87-90.
  6. Win EM, Saw YM, Oo KL, Than TM, Cho SM, Kariya T, et al. Healthcare waste management at primary health centres in Mon State, Myanmar: the comparisons between hospital and non-hospital type primary health centres. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2019;81(1):81-91.
  7. 7. Shakiba M, Mohagheghian A. Hospital waste generation and management status in Rasht, north of Iran. Caspian J Health Res. 2018;3(1):20-3.
  8. Chartier Y, ed. Safe management of wastes from healthcare activities. World Health Organization; 2014.
  9. Kumari R, Sharma V. Health care waste management: A case study of Punjab, India. Health care. 2018;3(2).
  10. Ferdowsi A, Ferdosi M, Mehrani Z, Narenjkar P. Certain hospital waste management practices in Isfahan, Iran. Int J Prev Med. 2012;3(Suppl1):S176-S185.
  11. Taghipour H, Alizadeh M, Dehghanzadeh R, Farshchian MR, Ganbari M, Shakerkhatibi M. Performance of on-site Medical waste disinfection equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Health Promot Perspect. 2016;6(4):202-6.
  12. Gao Q, Shi Y, Mo D, Nie J, Yang M, Rozelle S, et al. Medical waste management in three areas of rural China. PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0200889.
  13. Bdour A, Altrabsheh B, Hadadin N, Al-Shareif M. Assessment of medical wastes management practice: a case study of the northern part of Jordan. Waste Manag. 2007;27(6):746-59.
  14. Hasan MM, Rahman MH. Assessment of Healthcare Waste Management Paradigms and Its Suitable Treatment Alternative: A Case Study. J Environ Public Health. 2018; (Article ID 6879751):1-14.
  15. Jang YC, Lee C, Yoon OS, Kim H. Medical waste management in Korea. J Environ Manage. 2006;80(2):107-15.
  16. Yousefi M, Aliani S, Valinejadi A, Rezazadeh A, Khorsand A, Fazaeli S, et al. Effect of Iran's health system evolution plan" and" tariff change" on financial performance of para-clinic units in a big tertiary hospital in Iran. Koomesh. 2018;20(2):403-9.
  17. Farzadkia M, Moradi A, Mohammadi MS, Jorfi S. Hospital waste management status in Iran: a case study in the teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. Waste Manag Res. 2009;27(4):384-9.
  18. Awodele O, Adewoye AA, Oparah AC. Assessment of medical waste management in seven hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:269-79.
  19. Abd El-Salam MM. Hospital waste management in El-Beheira Governorate, Egypt. J Environ Manage. 2010;91(3):618-29.
  20. Gai R, Kuroiwa C, Xu L, Wang X, Zhang Y, Li H, et al. Hospital medical waste management in Shandong Province, China. Waste Manag Res. 2009;27(4):336-42.
  21. Mbongwe B, Mmereki BT, Magashula A. Healthcare waste management: current practices in selected healthcare facilities, Botswana. Waste Manag. 2008;28(1):226-33.
  22. Abdulla F, Abu Qdais H, Rabi A. Site investigation on medical waste management practices in northern Jordan. Waste Management. 2008;28(2):450-8.
  23. Askarian M, Vakili M, Kabir G. Results of a hospital waste survey in private hospitals in Fars province, Iran. Waste Manag. 2004;24(4):347-52.
  24. Al-Khatib IA, Khatib RA. [Assessment of medical waste management in a Palestinian hospital]. East Mediterr Health J. 2006;12(3-4):359-71.
  25. Stankovic A, Nikic D, Nikolic M. Report: Treatment of medical waste in Nisava and Toplica districts, Serbia. Waste Manag Res. 2008;26(3):309-13.
  26. Rafiee A, Yaghmaeian K, Hoseini M, Parmy S, Mahvi A, Yunesian M, et al. Assessment and selection of the best treatment alternative for infectious waste by modified Sustainability Assessment of Technologies methodology. J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2016;14(10):016-0251.